Vol 7, No 1 (2022)



Trots N.M., Borovkova N.V., Soloviev A.A.


The purpose of the research is to develop ways of soil reclamation applying phosphogypsum for spring barley crops on chernozemic soil growing under the conditions of the central agro-climatic zone of the Samara region. The studies were conducted in 2019-2021. The soil is ordinary medium loamy chernozemic with A1 horizon up to 50-60 cm. Full shoots of spring barley of the Berkut variety under the conditions of the central agro-climatic zone of the Samara region come up on the 7th day after seeding have been performed, there is no effect on this process both of mineral fertilizers and phosphogypsum. Their influence begins to manifest itself later. The introduction of phosphogypsum into the soil at a rate of 1.5-4.5 t / ha increases the vegetation of spring barley by 3-4 days, the use of phosphogypsum at a rate of 6.0 t / ha - by 5 days. The introduction of phosphogypsum into the soil against the background of the use of Ammophos in the norm of 100 kg/ha in gross weight, or 12 kg /ha - N and 52 kg/ha - P2O5 of the primary material, contributes to an increase of grain, on average by 5.9-9.5% - up to 710-734 g/l, the content of fat and ash in absolutely dry matter, respectively by 3.4-14.2 and 4.5-20.3% and free nitrogen extract - с 69.2% до 72.7%. The maximum values of these indicators were noted on the variants with the introduction of phosphogypsum 4.5 and 6.0 t per 1 ha. Economically, it is most expedient to apply phosphogypsum at a rate of 4.5 t/ha for spring barley of the Berkut variety on ordinary chernozemic soil of the central agro-climatic zone of the Samara region. The use of the above norm of phosphogypsum (6.0 t/ha) does not provide a significant increase of yield, leads to an increase of the production cost, a decrease of profitability of works and inefficient use of ameliorant.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):3-11
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Zubkova T.V., Vinogradov D.V.


The purpose of the research is the rapeseed quality and productivity increase when using zeolite-containing material as fertilizers for its growing within the climatic conditions of the Lipetsk region. Field studies were conducted in 2019-2021 in the conditions of the Lipetsk region on the experimental field of the Yelets State University named after I. A. Bunin. The winter wheat was the predecessor involved into the experiment. Rapeseed was sown during the third decade of April, the seeding rate amounted to 2.0 million units/ha. The following experience results were studied: 1) Control; 2) N60P60K60; 3) Zeolite 5 t/ha; 4) N60P60K60 + Zeolite 5 t/ha. To determine the metabolomics of alcohol extracts of rapeseed leaves, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used. The state of rapeseed stomata and pollen was tested via using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that zeolite influenced the size of stomata and pollen grains of rapeseed. The stomata size according to the studied variants can be represented as the following decreasing series: Control > N60P60K60> Zeolite 5 t/ha > N60P60K60 + Zeolite 5 t/ha. The maximum changes of 26.81-42.12 microns of the polar axis of pollen were observed on the variant N60P60K60 + Zeolite 5 t/ha. It has been established that the main primary metabolites in rapeseed leaves are the carbohydrate lactose and the sugar alcohols ribitol and arabitol. The lactose makes the predominant share, depending on the variants of the experiment, the peak area of which varies from 11.06 to 37.6%. The maximum yield marked - 29.1 c/ha - was noted on the variant N60P60K60 + Zeolite 5 t/ha, which exceeded the control by 69%.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):12-19
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Pertseva E.V., Vasin V.G., Kiseleva L.V.


The purpose of the research is the yield of lentils increase by stabilizing the phytosanitary of the seed material. A number of aspects (the consumer prefers other legumes, a small number of markets, low yield, high demands of the crop for agrotechnical terms, weather conditions and cultivation technologies) reduces the interest of farmers to the cultivation of lentils. Sergievsky area of the Samara region is referred to the risk farming territory, so the production of agricultural crops here is unstable from year to year. Crop losses reach up to 35% annually due to pests, diseases and weeds. The conditions for increasing the yield and improving its quality are the following: control of the phytosanitary of crops, seed material, as well as the sowing of varieties resistant to diseases. In the last five years, the area of lentil cultivation by the farms of the Sergievsky district of the Samara region includes territory between 320...2109 hectares. The size of the planting acreage is unstable, since the main aspect in solving the need for cultivating a crop is dependence on the market for its sale. The seed material intended for sowing in 2020 was mainly attacked by fungal diseases and only minor part (4%) by bacterial ones, the damage of non-infectious diseases with an unknown etiology was noted amounting to (10%). The highest lentil yield was obtained in 2018 by the management of «KAPK - Invest» LLC - reaching 13.5 c/ha, which is 4.8 c/ha higher than the average yield figure obtained in the Samara region, and 2.2 c/ha higher than the average regional yield obtained in 2018. The use of this experience achievement in agricultural production, namely, the study of stabilizing variants for the phyto-sanitary level of the seed material, will increase gross lentil yield.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):20-27
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Kurochkin A.A., Frolov D.I.


The purpose of the research is to substantiate the dependence of properties of extrudate and specific mechanical energy of the extrusion process on the dimensional characteristics of the extruder matrix. The study of influence of the dimensional characteristics of holes of an extruder matrix on processing properties of the resulting extruded product, in particular, on the expansion coefficients of an extrudate and efficiency of an extruder. The design features and the shape of a matrix which can ensure a uniform flow, as well as correct consistency of the extruded mixture, require extensive theoretical and experimental studies. To provide theoretical substantion the geometric parameters of the extruder matrix and the physical occurrence with raw materials, the equations of fluid flow through spinneret holes are presented. The equations for estimating the pressure drop through the flow section of the matrix at a given rate of raw materials move for a non-Newtonian mixture are presented. The material for extrusion is corn grit. The experiments were carried out involving an experimental single-screw extruder type EK-40. The matrix with holes was chosen according to the experimental plan. The experimental data were analyzed using dispersion analysis. All statistical tests were performed using the STATISTICA software. The results of influence of a hole diameter, the length of the matrix channel and their ratio on the specific mechanical energy and the expansion coefficients of the extrudate were obtained. With an increase of diameter in the extruder spinneret hole, the specific mechanical energy decreases from 100 J/kg with a hole diameter of 2 mm to 50 J/kg with a one of 4 mm. The size of an extruder spinneret hole had the greatest impact on the radial expansion coefficient of the extrudate. With an increase of the hole diameter from 2 to 4 mm, the radial expansion coefficient of the extrudate decreased approximately by 38% to 6.96. The increase of the radial expansion coefficient is mainly due to a decrease of a hole with

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):28-37
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Milyutkin V.A., Ivanov V.A., Popov A.V.


The purpose of the research is to improve cultivation technology of agricultural crops using innovative engineering designed for application of liquid nitrogen chemical fertilizers based on carbamide-ammonia mixture. Agrochemical measures with the use of innovative liquid nitrogen chemical fertilizers based on a carbamide-ammonia mixture (CAM) with addition of sulfur according to innovative engineering and technology are the most important and advanced factors in production of crop products. Research of innovative methods and technical means for applying fertilizer solution of the carbamide-ammonia mixture for a number of years (2018-2021) was carried out jointly with specialists of PJSC KuibyshevAzot and JSC Eurotechnika involving main agricultural crops of the Volga region (Samara region) - wheat (spring and winter), corn, sunflower, soy - in the fields of the Samara State Agricultural University and agricultural enterprises of the Samara, Volgograd, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk and Penza regions. The technologies and technical means studied during experiments provide the possibility of using carbamide-ammonia mixture in various ways: subsurface, in the form of foliage application, superficially along the vegetative part of plants and combined. The existing technologies and technical means of applying liquid nitrogen fertilizers based on carbamide-ammonia mixture were systematized. Comparative tests were carried out to assess the advantages of standard liquid nitrogen fertilizer CAM-32 (32% - N) and innovative nitrogen-sulfur-containing - CAM + S (24-26% - N and about 4% - S). Methods of applying liquid nitrogen fertilizers based on carbamide-ammonia mixture have been developed. The obtained research results will move agricultural enterprises to increase the yield of cultivated crops and their efficiency, especially in conditions of insufficient moisture with both high atmospheric and soil temperatures and taking into regard predicted global warming.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):38-47
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Slesarenko N.A., Shirokova Y.O., Belyakova A.P.


The purpose of the research is to develop healthy morpho-sonographic indicators of a cattle dam of a black-and-white Holstein breed. There is insufficient information in the available literature on a comprehensive approach to assessing the morpho-functional state of a cow dam. Macro- and micromorphometric parameters of a dam have not been established, taking into account the breed characteristics of animals, as well as its healthy sonographic features in order to identify organ pathologies. One of the most important tasks of clinical morphology and veterinary medicine is to find highly effective, precise ways to establish the parameters of structural-functional indicators of a cattle dam. The research was carried out in 2021-2022 on the basis of the Department of Anatomy and Histology of Animals named after Professor A. F. Klimov of the Moscow State Medical University named after K. I. Scriabin, including the Povadino Breeding Plant. The scientific and production part of the experiment was carried out by selecting a group of analogues according to generally accepted methods. The results of morphometric, micromorphological and sonographic studies of the dam of a black-and-white Holstein cow were presented. A group of clinically healthy animals (n=20) was formed to conduct the experiment. Autopsy material from healthy animals (n=10) was chosen for linear morphometry and histological studies. The research was based on a comprehensive methodological approach - clinical examination of animals, careful anatomical dissection, macroscopical morphometry, light microscopy of histological sections of the uterine wall, ultrasound investigation using the Easi-Scan: Go and statistical analysis of obtained digital data. On the basis of the conducted studies, healthy morphometric and micromorphological parameters of a cow dam of a black-and-white Holstein breed were established. Ultrasound characteristics of a cattle dam were presented, which can be basic in assessing the morpho-functional status of an organ.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):54-60
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Baymishev H.B., Baymishev M.H., Eremin S.P.


The purpose of the research is the morpho-chemistry blood value determination of high producing cows depending on the lactation period. The studies were carried out involving Holstein breed with a milk yield of 8500 kg or more. One group of cows-analogues was formed in regard to age, productivity and directional selection. Studies of blood chemical values were carried out during peak and end of lactation. Based on the conducted studies, it was found that milk productivity of cows, depending on the lactation period, affects blood values. During peak lactation of cows, the content of: erythrocytes by 1.06 1012/l, segmented neutrophils - by 3.80%, monocytes - by 1.06%, stab neutrophils - by 2.95%, hemoglobin - by 22.70 g/l, and in the blood serum: calcium by 0.16 mmol/l, glucose - by 0.48 mmol/l, total protein - by 18.23 g/l more than at the end of lactation. During the period of less intensive milk production and an increase of pregnancy period the content of platelets in blood is higher by 24.49 109/l, basophils - by 1.04%, in-organic phosphorus - by 0.16% compared to the lactation peak period. The ratio of the albumin-globulin coefficient was higher than the threshold level during the period of peak lactation by 0.24, and at the end of lactation by 0.45. An increase of albumin-globulin coefficient confirms a decrease of calcium content in the blood serum. The mor-pho-chemical blood values of cows, taking into account the lactation period, can serve as base for developing of feeding technology, keeping high producing cows to prevent metabolic disorders by the end of lactation and correction during the dry period.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):48-53
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Baymishev H.B., Baymishev M.H., Eremin S.P., Baymisheva S.A.


The purpose of the research is an algorithm design for the use of an organic origin based on formic aldehyde for the correction of cow metabolism before calving. To conduct research, 2 groups of cows, 10 heads each (control and experimental), were formed from the number of pregnant cows 40-45 days before сalving using the principle of similarity. Cows of the experimental group 40-45 days before calving were injected intramuscularly with a preparation based on formic aldehyde at a dose of 6.0 ml three times with an interval of 7 days. The drug was not administered to the control group of animals. During the study period, all animals of the experimental groups were in the same conditions of feeding and keeping. On the basis of the conducted studies, it was found that the introduction of a drug based on formic aldehyde at a dose of 6.0 ml intramuscularly, three times with an interval of 7 days 40-45 days before delivery, contributes to an increase in blood serum close to 20-21 days before calving total calcium by 0.51 mmol/l, glucose - by 0.77 mmol/l, total protein - by 5.91 g/l, incl. alpha globulins - by 2.07% with a decrease in beta globulins by 1.67%. The blood content of enzymes of aminotransferase ALaT and ASAT in the blood of cows from experimental group compared with the control was 17.94 and 21.58 units/l, respectively, less. The use of a preparation based on formic aldehyde intramuscularly at a dose of 6.0 ml three times with an interval of 7 days 20-24 days before delivery provides a significant improvement of blood parameters of animals that influence metabolism and reduces aminotransferase enzymes to a threshold level.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):61-66
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Baimukhambetov R.K.


The aim of the study was to determine the morphology of kidney vascularization of the South Ural sheep. The Kidney of the South Ural sheep was taken for the study. The studied animals were bred and slaughtered on one of the Sorochinsky private subsidiary farms of Orenburg region. The studies were carried out at the Department of Morphology, Physiology and Pathology of the Orenburg State Agrarian University. During the study of the arterial bed of a kidney, it was discovered that the vascularization of kidneys of animals is performed by the renal arteries,interlobular and arcuate arteries. Renal arteries of the first order originate from the abdominal aorta within the zone of the second or third lumbar vertebrae. It is found that both right and left renal arteries most often originate at the same level within the zone of the spine second and third lumbar vertebrae. On its way, the renal artery of the first order gives off smaller vessels of the second order, which supply blood to the renal pelvis, duct, fibroid and adipose capsule of the organ. At the hilum of the kidney, the renal artery divides into cranial, median, and caudal vessels. Vascularization of kidneys of sheep of the South Ural breed is performed by the renal arteries, which branch off from the abdominal aorta within the zone of the second or third lumbar vertebrae. Branching of the renal arteries occurs in various types, but the most common one is dichotomous, organic to the vessels of the second and tertiary order and arcuate arteries. For vessels of the third and fifth orders a loose type of branching is marked. Blood efflux from kidneys is performed through venous vessels with the same name and type of branching.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):67-72
pages 67-72 views


Simonov G.A., Stepurina M.A., Varakin A.T., Salomatin V.V., Zoteev V.S.


The aim of the research is to improve the nutritional value in the diet of dairy cows using complex mineral supplement - natural Volgograd bischofite. During the organization of scientific and economic experience, the selection of twenty dairy cows of the Red Steppe breed was carried out, of which two groups were formed including equal numbers of animals. Selection of cows into the groups put into comparison was carried out using a method that takes into account the principle of analogue pairs for experimental individuals. The experimental work was performed involving full-grown animals from the beginning of the lactation period. Cows of the 1st control group received feed and supplements of the main diet, and animals of the 2nd experimental group received Volgograd bischofite in addition to the main diet. Blood parameters were studied from 10 individuals taken from each group of animal analogues in equal quantities. The results of the study revealed that the studied blood parameters of cows from both groups corresponded to their physiological norm. The introduction of a complex mineral supplement into the diets of animals of group 2 had a positive effect on the biochemical parameters of blood composition. According to the scien-tific and economic experiment completed, the blood serum of cows of the 2nd experimental group had more total protein by 1.87%, albumins - by 2.42%, globulins - by 1.46% than in the blood serum of animals from the 1st control group when fed a diet without bischofite. The individuals of group 2 had an advantage in the absolute con-tent of globulin fractions in blood serum, namely alpha and gamma globulins, than of the animals of group 1, re-spectively, by 0.50 g/l (4.42%) and 0.80 g/l (3.51%). When using a mineral supplement of Volgograd bischofite as part of diets, its positive effect on milch cow productivity, milk quality and profitability of its manufacture was revealed.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):73-79
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Mironov N.A., Karamaeva A.S., Karamaev S.V.


The purpose of the research is to improve the quality and nutritional value of alfalfa haylage due to the use of the «GreenGrass 3x3» bioconservative during harvesting. The research was carried out on the dairy complex of LLC «Radna» of the Samara region. The research material is alfalfa haylage prepared with «GreenGrass 3x3» a bioconservative of a new generation. The object of research is the Holstein first-calf cows of German breed and the first-calf cows of the Ayrshire breed of the Finnish selection. When haylage with bioconservative introduced into the diet of lactating cows, milk yield for 305 days of the first lactation increased from Holstein cows by 6.2%, Ayrshire cows - by 7.7%; the fat content in milk, respectively, by 0.09 and 0.07%; protein - by 0.11 and 0.13%. Dividing the lactation period into three parts, in accordance with the physiological state of cows, it was found that during the first 100 days of lactation, the increase of milk yields is 10.3-11.6%, the second portion of 100 days - 3.3-7.3% and the third one of 100 days - 0.9-3.1%. The difference between the control and experimental groups in terms of fat and protein content in milk remains until the end of lactation. In the portion of fat globules of milk from cows of the exper-imental groups, the proportion with a diameter of 3 microns or more increased by 1.41 and 3.69%, which amounted to 48.16 and 51.72% of the total number of fat globules in milk fat and significantly improved the processing proper-ties of milk. Milk consumption for the production of 1 kg of butter decreased in regard to Holstein cows by 2.4%, Ayrshire - by 2.3%, while the butter output increased, respectively, by 3.0 and 2.4%.

Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(1):80-86
pages 80-86 views

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