Vol 6, No 3 (2021)



Sharapov I.I., Kaplin V.G.


The aim of the study is to assess the impact of weeds on the productivity of winter and spring wheat. Recording of weed species abundance were performed involving periods of 2012-2015 on wheat crops taking into accounts mesoforms of geography during different growing stages: seedling, tillering, booting, gold ripening, the experimental plots were distinguished and pegged both having no weeds and with dominant weed species . During the growing season, hand weeding helped to keep the field clean. During the stage of gold ripening, the dry weed matter and wheat crop was counted on sites of 0.25 m2 in 4-fold repetition, as well as the structural determination of yield productivity based on the sheave selection method. The weed harm was assessed by comparing the wheat yield on weedy and without weed (control) ones. Statistical data processing was carried out using dispersing and correlation analysis. Winter wheat was mainly infested by late spring, wintering, and offset weed, while spring wheat was infested with late spring and offset ones. In winter wheat crops in areas infested by early spring dicotyledon annuals, grain yield decreased by 16-28%, late spring - by 35%, wintering annuals Thlaspi arvense - by 8-36%, wild lettuce - by 4-20%, offset perennials with field bindweed, depending on the degree of infestation - by 6-28%, and yellow thistle - by 24-32%; and in the spring wheat crops, perennials and thistle - by 17-18, spurge - by 26%, bindweed, depending on the degree of infestation - by 2-44%, compared with non-infested areas. In winter and spring wheat crops, the higher the ratio of the dry mass of bindweed to the aboveground mass of wheat, the greater the loss of grain yield with correlation coefficients of 0.840 and 0.715, respectively.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):3-9
pages 3-9 views


Chukhnina N.V., Zudilin S.N.


The aim of the study is to increase winter wheat yield and grain grading using organic fertilizers and basic tillage in the conditions of the Middle Volga forest-steppe region. The studies were conducted in 2017-2020. Svetoch winter wheat variety was studied both taking into account plants and grain. During field experiment, organic fertilizers were applied with different methods of basic tillage. The analysis of crop structure showed that the use of organic fertilizers provided an increase of almost all elements of the structure of winter wheat yield without a significant difference depending on the type of organic fertilizers and main tillage. The optimal indicators were when applying manure and dry organic fertilizer provided eutrophic yield. By factor A based on (organic fertilizers) for 2017-2020 average yield of winter wheat was: without fertilizers - 2.95 t/ha; with the introduction of 30 t/ha of manure - 3.32 t/ha; dry organic fertilizer - 3.35 t/ha; liquid organic fertilizer - 3.36 t/ha; vermicompost - 3.32 t/ha. The increase of winter wheat yield with organic fertilizers was 0.37-0.41 t/ha (12.5-13.9%). According to factor A (main tillage), yield amounted to with plowing at depth 20-22 cm - 3.33 t / ha; surface tillage 10-12 cm - 3.25 t/ha; without autumn cultural practice - 3.19 t/ha. The application of organic fertilizers increased the protein content by 0.7-0.9% compared to the control yield without fertilizers. When applying organic fertilizers, gluten was 4.2-5.4% this figure was more than in the control without fertilizers. Organic fertilizers provided an increase of baking qualities of winter wheat yield.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):9-15
pages 9-15 views


Trots N.M., Gorshkova O.V.


The purpose of the research is to restore soil fertility of oil-polluted feed lands (pastures) for use in accordance with the intended purpose for agriculture. The degradation of natural feed lands, which occurs as a result of the impact of oil spills and oilfield water, destabilizes the development of phytocenoses and leads to a decrease of their productivity. The accumulation of oil waste and oil field water leads to a change in plant nutrition due to an increase of soil density, deterioration of the structural condition, reduction of water permeability, and accumulation of salts. Restoration of disturbed agricultural land is a theoretical, methodological and practical problem. The studies were conducted in 2019-2021 on oil-polluted chernozem of ordinary carbonate slightly humic and shallow balkas of erode and drift soils, containing medium-sized gravel and moderately clayey layers belonging to the category of natural feed lands (pastures).At the studied site, the degree of soil contamination by petroleum products varies from acceptable limits to very high, the content of Cl- and Na+ ions is increased, which corresponds to the chloride salinity quality, which is considered very high and residual sodium absorption ratio of the plot and little natric. The content of organic matter mainly humus on the contaminated site is 3.6-6.2%, on backing lands - 2.9%, the reaction of the soil solution medium is from normal to neutral and to slightly alkaline (pH 6.0-7.1), on backing soil-neutral (pH 6.1). The content of active forms of metal heavy (Pb, Hg) is within the Maximum Permissible value. According to the results of agrochemical analyses on a disturbed and polluted area of 0.875 hectares, two methods of soil restoration were adopted: technical and biological (agrotechnical measures for soil fertility recovery and sowing of perennial grasses) with a total cost of 187.65 thousand rubles.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):15-21
pages 15-21 views


Sharapova Y.A.


The results of study of barley aphid impact on soft winter wheat productivity are given. The research was carried out in 2014-2016 on soft winter wheat crops of four varieties: Povolzhskaya 86, Kinelskaya 8, Konstantinovskaya and Povolzhskaya Niva of selection of the Volga Research Institute of Breeding and Seed Production. The sheaves were selected prior to the wheat harvesting in a four-fold repetition from plots of 0,25 m2 of three fields and divided in the laboratory into damaged and undamaged productive shoots potions by barley aphids. According to the structural analysis, it was revealed that among the main parameters of grain productivity, the number of ears with colonies of aphids was 22-27% of their total number, the number of grains in the damaged ear decreased by 20-53%, the weight of 1000 grains by 28-42%, the weight of grains in the ear by 42-67%, which contributed to the loss of grain yield amounted to 14-25%. The maximum susceptibility to barley aphid was shown by the variety Konstantinovskaya, which had the largest number of productive shoots impacted by barley aphid colonies (27%), the maximum reduction in the number of grains (53%), the weight of grains in the ears damaged by aphids (67%), grain yield (25%). The lowest grain yield loss from barley aphid (14%) was observed in the varieties Povolzhskaya 86 and Povolzhskaya Niva. The more favorable the hydrothermal conditions were for the barley aphid spreading and the more its number maximum coincided with the stage of grain formation, the higher harmful impact of aphids and the loss of grain yield from it was.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):21-29
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Savelyev Y.A., Kirov Y.A., Ishkin P.A., Petrov M.A.


The purpose of the research is to increase the energy efficiency of powered tillage tool with soil spikers. A description of the design of a new powered tillage tool with a low draught is given. The reduction of the tool's draught is achieved by transferring main share of the power consumed by it onto the technological process of loosening the soil through the shaft of the power take-off mechanism to the soil spikers, which in turn create a pushing force. Influence of the design and technological parameters of soil spikers on the quality of soil pulverization and fuel consumption per hour during tillage have been studied. The best energy efficiency of powered tillage tool is provided by the optimal values of such factors as the interval of loosening elements disks of the 1st row ( Δ1 = 75°), interval of loosening elements on the disks of the 2nd row ( Δ2 = 77°) at the depth of tillage hp = 8 cm. With these values the specific energy consumption is at the level of 92 g/h×%. The use of the proposed powered tool with optimal design and technological parameters of soil spikers will ensure high-quality and energy-efficient loosening of the soil by stretching with separation due to the draught reduction of the tool when transferring the main share of the power consumed by the tool onto the shaft of the power take-off mechanism to the powered revolving working bodies. The use of such a tool will make it possible to carry out early spring tillage, preserve a greater amount of yielding moisture and ensure farm crop increase in arid conditions of the Middle Volga region.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):30-38
pages 30-38 views


Kryucina N.V., Mishanin A.L., Mashkov S.V., Shukov A.V.


The purpose of the research is to improve the quality of sowing in a row by improving the design and process dependent parameters of a belt feed with disks for a nursery planter. The main task of the sowing process is the best possible seeding into the soil in order to ensure the best conditions for their germination and further crop yield in general. To obtain high and stable yields, seeding machines must ensure a continuous and even seeding, the stability of standard quantity of seed per hectare, possibility of seeding various crops, minimal damage, easy and convenient feed for a required seeding rate. The research was conducted on the basis of the Samara State Agrarian University. The design and process dependent scheme of a belt seeding machine with disks was presented. Theoretical studies of the supply port of the tanker feed chamber and laboratory tests were carried out, which made it possible to select the best design parameters of the belt feed with disks to obtain even continuous seeding. An expression is obtained for optimal value of the supply port opening, depending on the design and process dependent parameters of the feed roller and properties of seed. Laboratory studies were carried out to value the dependence of the supply of a belt feed with disks on the design and process dependent parameters of operation. All experiments were carried out involving sole feeding machine in laboratory conditions on a bench maintenance test set. The research methodology provided for determining the minimum required opening value of the supply port of a belt feed with disks on the basis of its operational performance equation. The optimal experimental values of seeding of a feed Q(min) = 0.083 kg/min and Q(max) = 0.2 kg/min were obtained, at which necessary standard quantity of seed per hectare and even seeding is provided.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):46-54
pages 46-54 views


Syrkin V.A., Mashkov S.V., Ishkin P.A., Vasiliev S.I.


The purpose of the research is to improve the quality of the seeding process of a peg-wheel feed. Plant breeding centers raise strict requirements to operational process of seeding quality and works are performed by nursery planters. One of main structural elements of a nursery planter that affects the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sowing is the seed drill. The most widespread among the seeding devices were peg-wheel with grooves. However, seeding devices of this type have disadvantages, one of which is the creation of a pulsating seed duct that increases the uneven seeding, leading to a decrease in the sowing quality. Peg-wheel feeds have no this disadvantage but possess a higher even seeding quality. A new design of a peg-wheel feed has been proposed, which roller is made up of three pin disks, two laterals and one central. During operation of the roller, the lateral disks rotate ahead of the central one, which contributes to an increase of even seeding. In order to identify the optimal parameters of the seeding apparatus that affect even longitudinal seeding, studies were conducted using the method of multifunctional planning of experiment. An experimental peg-wheel feed for a pneumatic nursery planter SSNP-16 has been manufactured. Main factors affecting the quality parameters of seeding process are the following: the number of toothed rollers k = 48; 72; 96; speed ratio changer that rotates the extreme roller disks, i = 1.17; 1.55; 1.93; rotation frequency of the central part of toothed roller n = 12; 16; 20. The best criteria is uneven longitudinal seeding v , %. The optimal values of key factors were found: the number of toothed rollers k = 87, speed ratio changer that rotates the extreme disks, i = 1.77, rotation frequency of the central part of toothed roller n = 16 rpm. With these values of factors, uneven longitudinal seeding does not exceed 22.5%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):39-46
pages 39-46 views


Karamayeva A.S., Bakayeva L.N., Karamayev S.V.


The purpose of the research is to improve the technology of growing replacements. In conditions of a significant reduction in cattle number, the task of cattle breeding is increasing milk yield and quality. Black-and-white, Bestuzhev, Holstein and Ayrshire milch cows were studied. The research was carried out in breeding farms of the Samara, Orenburg regions and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene was studied on the basis of a polymerase chain reaction. Average colostrum samples were taken 45 minutes after calving. It was found that among Black-and-White cows, the frequency of occurrence of the AA genotype was 63.5%, BB - 4.2%, AB - 32.3%, among Bestuzhev cows, respectively, 26.1; 13.5; 60.4%, Holstein - 72.9; 1.0; 26.1%,Aayrshire - 35.4; 8.4; 56.2%. At the same time, the frequency of the B allele of Bestuzhev genotypes is 2.2 times higher than of Black-and-White, 3.1 of Holstein, and 1.2 Ayrshire cows. Cows with the BB genotype in terms of protein in colostrum exceeded their herdmates with the AA and AB genotypes: Black-and-White breed by 0.8-0.4%, Bestuzhevskaya - by 1.2-0.6%, Holstein - by 1.0-0.3%, Ayrshire - by 1.3-0.6%. The difference in the content of globulins in colostrum was, respectively according to breeds 0,6-0,1; 0,9; 0,7-0,1; 0,7-0,2%. It is recommended to give preference to breeds which have allelic gene variants resulting in desirably milk yield increase.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):55-61
pages 55-61 views


Slesarenko N.A., Abramov P.N., Voronin A.M.


The purpose of the research is to improve the quality indicators of down and fur raw materials. The article presents the results of studies on assessment of the effect of the products of enzymatic hydrolysis of protein as a source of amino acids which make their deficiency in main diet on the structural organization of mink coat of cage-raised. The data on the stimulating effects of tested supplement feeds on the adaptive remodeling of consistence of skin and hair coat are confirmed by an increase of coat thickness of animals from the experimental groups, compared with the control analogues, collagen fibers in corium and an increase of smaller vessels on the equivalent area of the histological section, a decrease in the thickness of epidermis and depth of hair follicles, as well as the increase of hair in the bundle. These supplement feeds show applicability for fur farming. The work is based on the analysis of complex studies performed on 60 American minks, the feeding diet of which was different. The following methods were used: post-mortem examination, to have macroscopic assessment of state of the abdominal organs of studied animals, anatomical dissection with subsequent description of structures, light microscopy of histological sections, macro-and micromorphometry of samples of the intestinal canal and skin samples, scanning electron microscopy. The obtained digital data were statistically processed according to classical methods. Complex studies have established that the protein hydrolysate under study has a high content of threonine, lysine, leucine, and arginine, which favorably affect all systems of the mink body. The leading amino acid threonine is involved in the synthesis of glycine and serine. They, in turn, are responsible for the reproduction of muscle tissue, elastin and collagen.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):61-66
pages 61-66 views


Datchenko O.O., Ermakov V.V.


The purpose of the research is to increase the grade quality of the carcass depending on the intensity of F. hepatica in the liver of young black-and-white stock. The work was carried out at the Department of «Epizootology, Pathology and Pharmacology» of the Samara State Agrarian University. Before slaughter, a live-animal estimate of fasciole infestation of black-and-white bull calves was carried out by the method of successive flushes. In compliance with the analysis principle, during the pre-slaughter inspection of cattle, two groups of young animals aged 14 months were selected in the amount of 10 heads, five per each group. During the veterinary-sanitary examination of beef carcass, the effect of fascioliasis on the morphological composition of it was studied, depending on the infection intensity. The research involved carcass of young stock. Depending on the infection intensity, carcasses and liver were divided into three groups. Group I included material from low infected animals (10±1 specimens/heads); group II - from highly infected animals (22±1 specimens/ heads). The third group (control) included carcasses whose internal organs free of F. hepatica. It was found that the extent of infection was 10%. With high infection intensity, morphological changes in the liver were observed, characterized by inflammatory parts with connective tissue increase. At the same time, the liver weight of average level infected calf bulls was 7% greater than the liver obtained from healthy ones, which is a consequence of toxic, mechanical and allergic effects of trematodes. Meat obtained from animals with high infection intensity was inferior in morphological parameters to meat from good doers. Depending on the infection intensity, the yield of primal parts tends downward. In comparison with the control, the difference of meat of grade I quality in the first group was 7.7 kg; in the second group - 17.9 kg; grade II, respectively, in groups - 0.1; 2.3 kg, grade III - 0.2; 1.6 kg. With low infection intensity, these differences were insignificant.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(3):66-70
pages 66-70 views

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