Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy

The Journal is peer review scientific periodical, has being published since 2006.
 
Founder
  • Samara State Agricultural Academy

Editor-in-Chief

  • Alexander M. Petrov, candidate of technical Sciences, Professor, Rector of Samara State Agricultural Academy.
Indexing
  • Russian Science Citation Index
  • Agricultural International system (AGRIS)
  • Google Scholar
  • WorldCat
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory

Aims and Scope

The journal is intended for Researchers, Managers, Directors, Teachers, graduate students and undergraduates of universities, contributes to the improvement of training and certification, strengthening of scientific and pedagogical staff.

The journal aims are to coverage and disseminate latest achievements of science and technology in the field of agriculture. The journal presents publications of the main research results of the representatives of the teaching staff, postgraduates and undergraduates of agricultural and other universities, scientific organizations of the Russian Federation.

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Current Issue

Vol 7, No 4 (2022)

Articles

CROP STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES WHEN GROWN FOR THE PLANNED YIELD
Vasin V.G., Vasin A.V., Fadeev S.V., Fadeeva E.S.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to increase the productivity of winter wheat varieties when grown to the planned yield. Recently, the use of micronutrients in agriculture has become widespread. An important place is given to stimulating preporations in the form of liquid mineral fertilizers. The use of MEGAMIX micronutrient mixtures reduces the deficiency of trace elements in plants and stimulates the assimilation of introduced micronutrients. The most important of them are iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, boron. The objectives of the research are to assess the structure of the crop, to assess the yield of winter wheat varieties and to identify the effectiveness of the use of micro-fertilizing mixtures of MEGAMIX for vegetation in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. The three-factor experiment consists of applying fertilizers for a planned yield of 4.5 t/ha, for a planned yield of 8.5 t/ha (factor A); winter wheat varieties: Svetoch, Scepter, Yuca, Grom (factor B); systems for processing crops with MEGAMIX preparation: without treatment (control), MEGA-MIX PRO (1 l/ha) in the tillering phase, MEGAMIX NITROGEN (1 l/ha) in the tube exit phase, MEGAMIX SULFUR (1 l/ha) in the flag leaf phase (factor C). The experiment was conducted according to the generally accepted methodology of B. A. Dospekhov. The use of fertilizers in combination with stimulating preparations for vegetation increases the yield of products. Winter wheat varieties showed a good result - the yield was higher than planned. The maximum yield is the Yuca variety - 61.20 c/ha when applying fertilizers for a planned yield of 4.5 t/ha and 94.20 c/ha for a planned yield of 8.5 t/ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):3-8
pages 3-8 views
ECOLOGICAL AND RECLAMATIVE METHODS OF INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY OF ALKALINE CHERNOZEM IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SAMARA REGION
Trots N.M., Soloviev A.A., Borovkova N.V., Bokova A.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to develop methods for increasing soil fertility by introducing phosphogypsum on alkaline chernozem in the conditions of the Samara region. The effect of the introduction of various norms of phosphogypsum (1,5, 3,0, 5,0 t/ha) on alkaline chernozem against the background of N120P60K60 on soil structure, the reaction of the soil environment and the content of absorbed bases, and on the formation of winter wheat productivity was studied. Field experiments were laid in 2019-2022 on the territory of a pilot site in the central agroecological zone of the Samara region. The soil is alkaline medium loamy chernozem with a thickness of humus horizon up to 50-60 cm. Phosphogypsum was applied against the background of the use of the mineral fertilizer Ammophos (NH4H2PO4 + (NH4)2HPO4). One half of the calculated norm was introduced by spreading for pre-sowing cultivation, and the second - when sowing through the fertilizer dispenser of the seeder. Field experiments were accompanied by the necessary observations and analyses. When phosphogypsum is applied to the soil, the processes of structure formation are activated, stable granules with a diameter of 1-3 mm are formed in a layer of 0-10 cm, an improvement in the morphological structure of the soil is observed. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in combination with phosphogypsum (5 t/ha) contributes to the activation of microbiological processes in the soil by 67-87 %. On natural and elevated backgrounds on alkaline chernozem, the annual application of phosphogypsum and mineral fertilizers at a dose of N40P40K40 improves the supply of soil with mobile compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, increasing the level of effective fertility. The growth and development of cultivated crops increases at a dose of phosphogypsum of 2 t/ha, the yield of winter wheat significantly increases (by 19.3%).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):9-15
pages 9-15 views
FORMATION OF HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE SUNFLOWER AGROCOENOSISES IN COMPLEX PROCESSING WITH ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZERS AND GROWTH STIMULANTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SAMARA REGION
Kiseleva L.V., Brezhnev A.V., Vasin V.G., Kim V.E.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to increase the productivity of sunflower hybrids and improve the quality of the products obtained. The tasks included assessing the yield under different variants of the use of stimulant drugs against the background of the use of fertilizers, determining the parameters of the agrophytocenosis of sunflower hybrids according to the variants of the experiment, determining the oil content and oil yield with the harvest. Sunflower is a very demanding culture for mineral nutrition. In modern hybrids, the yield potential reaches 3-4 tons of seeds per hectare, while the average yield in Russia does not exceed 1.4-1.5 t/ha. In this regard, there is a need to increase yields, including due to high-grade mineral nutrition and, especially, by leaf feeding. Farmers need a rational and adapted to local conditions agrotechnology. The special fertilizers offered by the market are becoming more diverse. Hybrids also play an important role in increasing sunflower productivity, the correct selection of which contributes to obtaining a high gross seed harvest and obtaining high-quality products. A comparative assessment of sunflower hybrids 8H358KLDM (Brevant), LG 5543 KL and LG 5543 HO KL (Limagrain Eurolaying), EU Novamis SL (Euralis), Si Katana KLP (Syngenta) cultivated with fertilizers (N10P26K26 + Nitraborum 40 kg/ha and N20P52K52 + Nitraborum 60 kg/ha) and processing of Alfastim crops + Polydon Amino Mix. On average, over the studied years, the combined use of the studied agricultural techniques contributed to an increase in yield by 18.9...25.4%, the fat content in seeds increased to 49.85...50.01%. At the same time, the oil yield increased by 1.69...2.99 c/ha, reaching a yield of 12.05...13.65 c/ha. The best hybrid for collecting oil was 8N358KLDM, the hybrid LG 5543 KL was somewhat inferior to it.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):16-23
pages 16-23 views
EFFICIENCY OF HARVESTING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CULTIVATION OF BUCKWHEAT VARIETIES
Klimova L.R., Kadyrova F.Z., Minikaev R.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to increase the efficiency of harvesting technologies in the cultivation of buckwheat. The experience was laid down according to two-factor scheme in 4-fold repetition. 4 hybrid populations were selected, which are in the selection study at the stage of competitive variety testing. The Chatyr Tau variety of Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture selection is taken as a standard. Separate harvesting was carried out at the ripening of 75% of seeds on buckwheat plants. The plots were mowed into rolls with a cut height of 15-18 cm. Selection and threshing of rolls was carried out to achieve optimal moisture content of grain and straw. Tornado 500 preparation was taken as a desiccant, the active substance of which is glyphosate (isopropylamine salt) with a concentration of 500 g/l. The rate of consumption of the drug is 2 l / ha. The processing of variants was carried out at the ripening of 80% of the fruits. 7-10 days after processing, at a plant humidity of 20-24%, direct harvesting of plots was carried out. The varietal responsiveness of genotypes was revealed by the yield and quality indicators of grain. The K-874 cultivar turned out to be the most responsive to the treatment of plants with glyphosate. The grain gain during direct compounding was 0.43 t/ha with a simultaneous decrease in grain filminess by 2.31%. There was also a decrease in the mass of thousand seeds by 1.7 g and the grain size by 8 g/l. With separate harvesting, the K-874 varietal also exceeded the grain yield standard (1.67 t/ha). The Chatyr Tau standard showed a negative reaction to the use of a desiccant - compared with separate harvesting, the yield decreased by 0.46 t/ha and the nature decreased by 16 g/l, the filminess and weight of thousands of fruits increased. The K-899 cultivar during direct harvesting with preliminary desiccation of plants slightly reduced grain yield (0.02 t/ha), while better grain was obtained due to a decrease in the weight of the near-fruit and an increase in fruit fulfillment. During the desiccation of plants with glyphosate, the K-850 and K-990 samples formed a larger and more complete grain, but the grain yield was lower than during separate harvesting.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):24-32
pages 24-32 views
FORMATION OF AGROPHYTOCENOSIS AND CORN PRODUCTIVITY IN FOREST-STEPPE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Kozhevnikova O.P., Vasin V.G., Vasin A.V., Trifonov D.I.
Abstract
The aim of the research is to improve the methods of maize hybrids cultivation on grain with the application of fertilizers on the planned yield and the use of the system of application of stimulating preparations in the forest-steppe conditions of the Middle Volga region. The methods increasing corn productivity by applying modern microfertilizer mixtures in the forest-steppe conditions of the Middle Volga region in 2020-2021 are described. The assessment of the main biometric parameters is given: standing density and fullness of seedlings, number of plants to be harvested and preserved, the height of plants, the dynamics of growth of above-ground mass and accumulation of dry matter, corn yield when treated with Megamix liquid mineral fertilizers during vegetation at different levels of mineral nutrition. The highest indicators were achieved on the variants of fertilization for the planned yield of 9 t/ha and treatment with stimulating preparations Megamix. There is an increase in the completeness of seedlings and the safety of plants for harvesting with the improvement of nutritional regime and the processing of crops. The best indicators of germination completeness and safety (98.2 and 86 %, respectively) are observed when fertilizers are applied to the planned yield of 9 t/ha and treated with liquid fertilizers during the growing season in a hybrid of the company KWS Amarok, FAO 230. By the phase of milk-wax ripeness, the increase in aboveground mass reaches 4039.0-4509.96 g/m2. The hybrid Amarok has the highest growth rate. The level of mineral nutrition affects the hybrids studied differently, but the most responsive was the Amarok hybrid when processing crops with Megamix preparations, accumulated by the end of the growing season 1417.6 g/m2 of dry matter. Studies conducted on the experimental field of the Samara State Agrarian University in 2020-2021 have established that the studied methods allow to obtain corn grain yield at the level of 8.23 t/ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):33-41
pages 33-41 views
COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVITY OF CORN HYBRIDS AT DIFFERENT PLANNED LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION AND THE USE OF STIMULANTING PREPORATIONS OF THE YARA VITA SYSTEM
Vasina N.V., Trifonov D.I., Vasin A.V., Savachaev A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to improve the methods of cultivating corn hybrids for grain when applying fertilizers to the planned yield using stimulating preparations of the Yara Vita system. Corn responds well to fertilizers, sufficient supply of nutrients is necessary for the formation of a high yield. The effectiveness of fertilizers is strongly dependent on climatic and weather conditions during the growing season. It was decided to combine the application of mineral fertilizers, the treatment of crops with liquid mineral and stimulating preparations used as leaf fertilizers during the growing season, which will allow achieving the planned yield of the highest quality. The experience was laid according to a three-factor scheme in 4-fold repetition. The structure of the yield of various corn hybrids obtained by applying fertilizers for the planned yield of 7 and 11 t/ha has been studied. The analysis of the crop structure showed the patterns of crop formation and allowed us to establish that increased doses of mineral fertilizers give a significant increase in the corn harvest. On average, the biological yield of corn was 5.86-10.94 t/ha. The maximum yield - 10.94 t/ha - forms a hybrid of Amarok against the planned background of mineral nutrition of 11 t/ha when processing crops with Yara Vita preparations. The features of growth and development of various hybrids when using the system of stimulating drugs Yara Vita are analyzed. The assessment of the fodder advantages of corn grain of the studied variants is given. It has been established that the use of mineral fertilizers and the treatment of crops with stimulating drugs allows not only to form a full-fledged harvest of corn grain, but also to increase the fodder advantages of the crop. The largest collection of dry matter, digestible protein and feed units is noted on variants with the treatment of crops with the Yara Vita preparations when applying fertilizers for the planned yield of 11 t/ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):42-49
pages 42-49 views
YIELD AND OIL CONTENT OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS WHEN USING FERTILIZER AND STIMULATING PRAPARATION VIGOR FLOWER
Saniev R.N., Vasin V.G., Brezhnev A.V., Kim V.E.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to develop methods for increasing the productivity of sunflower hybrids cultivated according to the Clearfield system when applying fertilizers N10P26K26 + Nitrobor 40 kg/ha and treating crops with Vigor Flower in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. The objects of research are Diammofoska and Nitrabor fertilizers; crop treatment: control (without treatment), Vigor Flower; sunflower hybrids - 8N358KLDM, LG 5543 KL, LG 5452 HO KL, ES Novamis SL, Si Katana KLP. The field experience was laid down in the crop rotation of «Plant Growing and Agriculture» Department of the Samara State Agrarian University. The soil of the experimental site is ordinary residual carbonate medium-humus medium-thick heavy loamy chernozem. Agrotechnics are generally accepted for the zone, the predecessor is spring wheat. Sowing was carried out with a tilled seeder SUPN-8 in a dotted manner with a seeding rate of 65 thousand germinating seeds per 1 ha, the crops were treated in phase 3 with a pair of leaves with a Captor preparation of 1.0 l / ha, the flow rate of the working fluid is 150 l / ha. Cleaning was carried out separately in the phase of full ripeness. Crop records were carried out by the method of harvesting sites with an area of 10 m2 in fourfold repetition with a complete analysis of the crop structure. The number of plants, the weight of anthodiums, the weight of seeds, the moisture content of seeds were determined. The yield was brought to a humidity of 7%. The maximum yield is achieved by crops of the hybrid 8H358KLDM, which is 25.49 c/ha, when applying fertilizers N10P26K26 + Nitrobor 40 kg/ha and treating crops with Vigor Flower. The oil content of hybrids is in the range of 49.64-49.77% with the maximum value on crops of the hybrid 8H358KLDM when applying fertilizers N10P26K26 + Nitrobor 40 kg / ha and using the preparation Vigor Flower for growing season. The best oil yields are hybrids LG 5543 KL and 8H358KLDM with an oil yield of 12.46 and 12.68 c/ha when applying fertilizers N10P26K26 + Nitrobor 40 kg/ha and treating crops with Vigor Flower.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):50-59
pages 50-59 views
YIELD FORMATION OF AGROPYRON-LEGUMINOUS MIXTURES WHEN USED FOR HAY
Vasin V.G., Krieger M.S., Vasin A.V., Vasin S.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to develop methods for increasing productivity and improving the feed value of poly-species herbage based on crested wheatgrass when harvesting for hay in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. The results of studies of the feed productivity of poly-species stands of perennial grasses based on crested wheatgrass with the use of a biological growth stimulator Gumi-20M are presented. The studies of 2019-2021 were conducted on the herbage of the fifth-seventh years of life with a haymaking assessment in the phase of earing of the crested wheatgrass and flowering of legumes. The composition of the studied grass mixtures included crested wheatgrass, bluegrass, sandy esparcet, blue-hybrid of alfalfa and lotus corniculatus. The influence of the biostimulator on such parameters as tillering, photosynthetic activity (leaf area, as well as photosynthetic potential and net photosynthesis productivity were evaluated), yield, the proportion of components in the grass and feed advantages were studied (the collection of dry matter and digestible protein was taken into account, the number of feed units and exchange energy was taken into account). An increase in productivity was revealed when using a biostimulator. It was found that the maximum productivity is provided by three-component herbage with sandy esparcet and blue-hybrid of alfalfa. These herbages showed the maximum collection of green mass and the best fodder properties. The largest leaf area is formed in two-component herbage with crested wheatgrass when using Gumi-20M. In such mixtures, the area of legume leaves exceeds the area of cereal leaves. The photosynthetic potential similarly increases with the use of the stimulator Gumi-20M and with the addition of a legume component to the herbage. The best indicators were noted in herbage with esparcet and alfalfa. There was an increase in the proportion of legumes when using a stimulant. The smallest share of the component was shown by lotus corniculatus.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):60-69
pages 60-69 views
NEONATAL ULTRASOUND SCREENING OF DOG'S PREGNANCY
Slesarenko N.A., Shumeyko A.V., Kolyadina N.I.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to identify the features of the morphogenesis of the neonatal period of the fetus of dogs. The features of the morphogenesis of the neonatal period of the fetus of dogs are presented. The research was carried out on the basis of the Department of Anatomy and Histology of Animals named after Professor A. F. Klimov of the Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MBA named after K. I. Scriabin and the «MedVet» Veterinary Center. The object of research is 57 pregnant female dogs, divided into groups taking into account their breed affiliation, which were studied throughout the entire pregnancy period. Ultrasound examination throughout pregnancy was performed using the Vetus 8 device of the «Mindray» company using a microcomplex sensor with a wave range of 4.7-12.8 Hz. On the basis of ultrasound examination of the course of pregnancy in female dogs, the main stages of fetal embryogenesis and organogenesis were revealed. Embryos were found on the 15th-17th day after ovulation, on the 17th-19th day the embryo acquires an elongated shape. On the 20th-22nd day, fetal membranes in the form of spherical structures were revealed around the embryo, from the 24th day the embryo takes a bipolar form, from the 42nd day signs of ossification of the skin were revealed, from the 45th day of pregnancy, the hairline is actively formed. The characteristic of the main stages of fetal development in normal, according to the gestation period is presented. Based on ultrasound examination, additional criteria for assessing fetal maturity were introduced: assessment of the amount of meconium in the colon, which may indicate the normal functioning of the intestine and signal the readiness of the fetus for birth; monitoring of the state of renal structures by the amount of amniotic fluid.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):70-76
pages 70-76 views
FEATURES OF THE GROWTH OF HALF-BLOODED YOUNG ANIMALS WITH RECIPROCAL CROSSES OF KALMYK AND MONDOLONG BREEDS CATTLE
Molostova A.Y., Karamaev S.V., Valitov H.Z., Karamaeva A.S.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to improve the fattening and meat qualities of Kalmyk cattle by reproductive crossing with the Mandolong breed. The objectives of the research are to study the effect of reciprocal crossing of animals of the Kalmyk and Mandolong breeds on the intensity of weight growth of crossbred young animals of the first generation. The Kalmyk breed has a number of valuable economic and useful features. At the same time, the breed does not fully meet modern market requirements. Increased ability to fat deposition at an early age, low milk production of cows, a relatively short period of intensive growth and insufficient muscularity of the posterior third of the trunk reduces fattening and meat qualities. To improve these characteristics, in 2010 the Mandolong breed was imported from Australia, which is characterized by large size, precocity, high growth rate, excellent meat qualities. The problem with crossing breeds is that the Mandolong breed surpasses the Kalmyk breed in live weight of cows by 177 kg (37.8%), producing bulls by 250-300 kg (33.3-41.2%). Studies have shown that at birth, crossbred bulls from Mandolong cows outperformed their peers from the Kalmyk cows by 3.6 kg (10.1%), heifers, respectively, by 3.9 kg (12.9%). In the process of growing, the situation changed and at the age of 18 months, on the contrary, bulls from mothers of the Kalmyk breed outperformed their peers of group III by 25.6 kg (4.7%), heifers, respectively, by 16.1 kg (3.7%). Thus, for further breeding, it is preferable to use a variant of crossing Kalmyk cows with Mandolong bulls.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):77-83
pages 77-83 views
BREED FEATURES OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN COVER OF A DOMESTIC CAT DEPENDING ON THE MORPHOTYPE OF THE HAIR COVER
Slesarenko N.A., Zagorets P.S., Shirokova E.O., Kumirov S.G.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to present a comparative morphological characteristic of the skin of domestic cats, taking into account the features of the morphotype of heterogeneous hair. The comparative morphological characteristic of the general cover of representatives of the Felidae family, depending on the morphotype of the hair cover, is presented. The research was carried out at the Department of Anatomy and Histology of Animals named after Professor A. F. Klimov of the Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MBA named after K. I. Scriabin. When studying the skin, a comprehensive methodological approach was used, including anatomical dissection, light microscopy of histological sections, micromorphometry and statistical analysis of digital data. The object of the study is 73 cats of a reproductive age without pathologies of the general cover. On the basis of the conducted research, general patterns, species and breed features of the general cover of cats have been established. Analysis of the ratio of the thickness of the papillary and reticular layers to the total thickness of the skin showed that long-haired feline breeds are ahead of short-haired cats in terms of the degree of development of the papillary layer, however, the inverse relationship was revealed in terms of the degree of development of the reticular layer. When studying subcutaneous adipose tissue, it was found that cats of long-haired breeds are inferior to short-haired cats in these parameters. It is shown that the animals of long-haired breeds are ahead of short-haired ones in the quantitative representation of fibroblasts, but inferior to them in the thickness of bundles of collagen fibers. The established normative morphological indicators of the total cover, taking into account the breed affiliation of animals, are basic in assessing the clinical status and can be used in the diagnosis and therapeutic correction of dermatotropic pathologies.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(4):84-91
pages 84-91 views

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