Vol 5, No 4 (2020)



Dolzhenko D.O., Kaliakulina I.A., Bisharev A.A., Dvortcova T.V.


The aim of the research is developing an intermediate variety of spring barley with a high heat and xyrophytism, major diseases resistance, heavy yield and standing ability for the Middle Volga region steppe zone. As a result of a breeding program including spring barley with xerophytism ability in the Samara Scientific Research Agriculture Institute the Finist variety was developed for grain fodder use. The new breed is two-rowed refers to the medicum variety and the traditional steppe agroecotype area contained into the study. This is an intermediate variety, the duration of its growing season is 80-87 days. Finist is a medium-grown barley with a height of up to 80 cm in optimal conditions, dropping to 50 cm in a dry year. It shows a tendency to lodging, but over the years of testing, demonstrated standing ability even at a yield level of 5 t/ha. Finist is characterized by a very high xerophytism tolerance. Over the years of testing its pea predecessor (2016-2018), the new cultivar formed a grain yield of 2.16-5.29 t/ha, on average 3.27 t/ha, surpassing the Berkut variety by 0.06-0.24 t/ha (on average 0.18 t/ha or 5.8%). The advantage in the yield of the new cultivar is reliably realized in years with severe xerophytism; during more favorable conditions, the grain yield is formed at the standard level. Finist is characterized by a weight of 1000 grains of 37-46 g, high natural weight (662-703 g/l), and protein content in the grain at the level of standard - 11.2-12.5%. The economic effect of Finist cultivating in comparison with the widely Bercut spread amounted to 1525 rubles/ha, and the profitability level was 156%. The new Finist cultivar is recommended for testing and subsequent cultivation for grain fodder in the steppe zone of the Middle Volga region.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):3-8
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Maksyutov N.A., Zorov A.A., Skorokhodov V.Y., Mitrofanov D.V.


The purpose of the research is substantiation of the structure of crop acreage and cultural practice in the steppe zone of Orenburg Region. Time constant Held trial was carried out on the site of the Kuibyshev's experimental production farm located in Orenburg district. Field investigation method was used. Seed material was the following winter rye, winter wheat, spring durum wheat, spring soft wheat, peas, millet, barley. The research was based on the analysis of data on meteorological conditions and crop yields over 30 years. During the research period (1990-2019) significant changes in weather conditions took place. The greatest impact on productivity was exerted by air temperature, increased by 2.0°C during the agricultural year, in autumn period it decreased by 1.4°C, winter became warmer than usual by 2.6°C, spring and summer - by 1.8 and 0.4°C, respectively. Maximum precipitation period was observed in the first rotation - 477 mm, which is 110 mm more than the long - term average (367 mm), minimum - in the fifth rotation (334 mm), the deficit amounted to 33 mm. The most favorable conditions were for winter rye, the yield level rotation ranged from 2.18-3.26 tons per 1 ha. The highest winter wheat yield was observed in the first rotation - 2.54 ton per 1 ha. Barley is more resistant to local weather changes, it was inferior only to winter crops in yield, and the rotation range was1.21-2.49 ton per 1 ha. For other grain crops the objects of the study weather conditions were extremely unfavorable. The research was carried out in accordance with the research plan over 2020-2021, developed by the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution titled «Federal Scientific Center for Biological Systems and Agritechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences» (№0761-2019-0003). The article is dedicated to the memory of V. A. Korchagin - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):8-17
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Sukhorukov A.F., Sukhorukov A.A.


The aim of the research is increasing the xerophytism of new varieties of soft winter wheat in the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The research was conducted on the experimental field of the Samara Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture - Branch of Samara Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences in 2018-2019. The seed stock nursery included 66 domestic and foreign varieties of the All-Russian Institute of Crop Production Collection. During the research (2018-2019), the following varieties were distinguished by average yield: Stanichnaya (K - 65373) - 3.34 t/ha, Vyuga - 3.21 t/ha, Dar Zernograda (K - 65371) - 3.06 t/ha, Biryuza (K - 64280) - 3.07 t/ha, which is 0.48; 0.35; 0.20; 0.21 t/ha above the average yield of the sample of varieties, respectively. According to the index of ecological plasticity of productivity, the following ones stand out: Vyuga, Biryuza, Bezenchukskaya 790. According to the average value of the «mass of 1000 grains» in contrast conditions were marked: Donskoy prostor - 37.3 g, Stanichnaya - 36.5 g, Dar Zernogradа - 37.2 g. According to the stability factor of the «mass of 1000 grains», the following were distinguished: Donskoy prostor - 1.12, Dar Zernogradа - 1.09, Culver - 1.11. The following varieties: Biryuza, Vyuga, Bezenchukskaya 790, Stanichnaya obtained themaximum stress resistance in regard to «number of spikelets in the ear». Biryuza (SF = 1.0) and Vyuga (SF = 1.02) are distinguished according to the stability factor of the «number of grains in the ear». Scepter, Basis, Stanichnaya with a grain mass of one ear on average for 2018-2019 - 2.2; 1.9; 1.9 g, respectively have high genetic flexibility and compensatory ability in the formation of the «grain mass of one ear». As a result of the conducted research on a set of characteristics, Stanichnaya, Dar Zernogradа, Biryuza, Vyuga, Bezenchukskaya 790 varieties of winter soft wheat of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Breeding Collection were selected that are valuable for xerophytism breeding in the Middle Volga region.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):17-23
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Lupova E.I., Naumtseva K.V., Vinogradov D.V.


The purpose of the research is increasing the oilseed productivity using different levels of mineral nutrition out of soil under climatic conditions of The Ryazan region. Non-chernozem area of Russia is favorable for growing oil plants. On-farm research was conducted in the Ryazan region in 2015-2018 at the experimental agrotechnological station of the Ryazan SATU, where the soil is dark gray forest, on two-factor experiment base. Its predecessor is winter wheat. Sowing of spring rapeseed, white mustard, brown mustard (factor A) was carried out in the first decade of may, with the seeding rate of all crops of 2.5 million units/ha. Variants with different dose of mineral nutrition (factor B) were studied: control (without fertilizers), N60, N90, N120, P60K60, N60P60K60, N90P60K60, N120P60K60. The levels N120P60K60 (for rapeseed), N90P60K60 (for brown and white mustard) are calculated for a seed yield of 2.0 t/ha, with an adjustment to the calculation of balance of nutrients on experimental soils in the region. In 2015, the bulk yield of oilseeds of rapeseed and mustard in the Ryazan region was 57.7 and 9.7 thousand tons on an area of 50.7 and 16.9 thousand hectares; in 2018 it increased to 62.3 thousand tons. On average over three years of research, nitrogen had a significant effect on rapeseed and mustard. The maximum yield of rapeseed (24,4 kg/ha, higher than in the control, 2.9 kg/ha), mustard white (16,9 C/ha, higher than in the control and 3.6 t/ha) and brown gray (16.7 C/ha, higher than in controls, 3.1 t/ha) was obtained at the variant with the N120 (average for years of research). Based on the results of tests in 2015-2018, the levels of mineral nutrition N90, N120; N90, N120; N90-120Р60К60 are possible for use in the practical activities of the agro-industrial complex of the region.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):23-29
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Dzhangabaev B.Z.


The aim of the research is maintaining soil fertility and arable land productivity using a geographic information system. Improvement of the profitability of agriculture is based on the development of effective production methods based on advanced management and information technologies, including the development of precise farming technologies, as well as methods and abilities for supporting decision-making based on computer representation of knowledge. The main basis for the development of such technologies is data on soil fertility state, biometric characteristics of plant growth and development, weed infestation of crops, and susceptibility to diseases and pests. Long term experiments of Samara Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture - Branch of Samara Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences and base plots of «Samara» Station of agrochemical service found that despite increased prior to 2015, the loss of humus and nutrients, deterioration of agricultural and hydro-physical properties of chernozem soil for demonstration trial have relatively high potential productivity of arable land. More than 50% of the demonstration trial has an average value of humus in the soil (4-6%), about 80% of the area has a high content of mobile phosphates (151-200 mg/kg), and about 60% of the arable land area has a very high content of exchangeable potassium (180-260 mg/kg). The monitoring carried out in 2019 revealed the stabilization of agro-physical and agrochemical properties of the soil. The transition from traditional to resource-saving technologies provided a significant increase in mobile phosphates in 9 out of 12 fields and an optimal potash regime of the soil on average for the demonstration trial. Based on the results of the research, electronic cartograms of nutrients in the soils of the demonstration trial and agrochemical passports of fields were prepared, data on the rate of change in soil fertility over time, the degree of use of soil nutrients and fertilizers were obtained.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):29-36
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Menibayev A.I.


The aim of the research is to increase the yield of spring soft wheat in the Middle Volga region. Significant changes in environmental conditions over the years in the same region determine the need to improve varieties both in terms of crop response to favorable situation and resistance to stress factors. Increasing yield stability is a necessary condition for successful selection in regions with frequent environmental changes. In The Middle Volga region, years with droughts of different types, average or favorable for a set of environmental parameters occur with the same frequency. Samara research Institute conducts intentional selection of spring soft wheat for adaptability to stress factors and response to favorable environmental conditions. Field experiments were conducted at the experimental field of the Samara Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture - Branch of Samara Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, which is located in the central zone of the Samara region. For three years, 14 varieties of spring soft wheat belonging to different stages of breeding were studied. Registration plots covered experimental area is 20 m2, their distribution in blocks is randomized, and tier repetition is fourfold. Varieties response and their classification in the «extensiveness - intensity - stability» coordinates were evaluated using the methodology by S. A. Eberchart, W. A. Rassel using EXCEL and AGROS specialized program. As a result of the research, - Tulaykovskaya zolotistaya, Ekada 214 and Tulaykovskaya nadezhda varieties demonstrated the greatest response to the improving of growing conditions. These varieties are recommended to be used as a starting material in the selection of intensive varieties which are response to the improvement of agricultural technology and environmental conditions. Zhigulevskaya variety was noted as having the least response.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):36-41
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Potapov M.A., Frolov D.I., Kurochkin A.A.


The aim of the research is the holes optimization in extruder matrix for utilization and processing of poultry manure, with the development of organic fertilizer of required moisture. The article deals with utilization and processing of poultry manure in particular - chicken one. These wastes, due to their significant resource potential and possible harmful effect on the environment, are of particular scientific and practical interest in terms of highly efficient processing into a useful product or disposal. The main factor hindering the widespread use of extrusion in the processing of such poultry and livestock wastes is lack of high energy efficiency of this technology. The paper provides a substantiation of an energy-saving technology for processing poultry waste using a modernized extruder, the operating principle of which is based on thermal vacuum action on the product leaving matrix of the machine. The equipment and method of using a modernized extruder with a vacuum chamber as a means for reducing the moisture content of chicken manure with plant residues (litter droppings) and processing into organic fertilizer of required moisture content are described. To optimize the operation of an extruder with such raw materials, the mathematical dependences of the rheological characteristics of manure with plant inclusions are considered. Parameters σ 0 (yield stress at matrix entrance), τ 0 (shear stress in zero velocity on the matrix wall), α and β (velocity coefficients) and the number of holes in the matrix of a single screw extruder were determined using a capillary flowmeter. The dependence of the extrusion pressure on time was experimentally determined, which makes it possible to evaluate the flow behavior of the manure during its processing and draw a conclusion about the optimal number of holes in the extruder matrix.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):42-48
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Fudin K.P., Konovalov V.V., Teryushkov V.P.


The purpose of the research is to substantiate the design parameters of the drum mixer to improve the distribution of components in the volume of mixture, taking into account energy consumption. Obtaining mixtures with the specified parameters is important both for the agro-industrial complex and construction activities. For effective use mixtures of feed components are used. Crumbled mixtures are the most widespread and used. One of the least energy - consuming type of mixers is a rotating container-a drum mixer. The method involved conducting experimental studies and subsequent statistical processing of the results to obtain regression equations. The sedate and polynomial dependences of power consumption on the height and number of blades, installation angles of the lower and upper wings of the blades were revealed. The change in power consumption is insignificant, it fits into the operating zone of the drive motor with a capacity of 1 kW. The effect of the blade height in the range of 0.125...0.175 m on power consumption is insignificant. The influence of the number of blades is more critical. As the number of impellers increases, the power consumption decreases by 18%. If the number of impellers is more than six, the power consumption is not reduced. Angle b change of the lower wing of the impeller relatively to the tangent in the range of 30...40 degrees also does not significantly affect the power consumption. Further increase (up to 55 degrees) of this angle slightly increases its value (up to 2%). Angle g change of the upper wing position relatively to the tangent in the range 0...45 degrees affects the power by less than 1%. The highest power consumption corresponds to the upper wing angle of the impeller relatively to the tangent g = 10...20 degrees.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):48-55
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Soboleva N.V., Karamayev S.V., Karamayeva A.S.


The aim of the research is improve cheese milk from Holstein cows. Main reason that hinders the production of high-quality brand cheeses by Russian cheesemakers is the lack of cheese milk for its production. Quality and structure of Caseins affect cheese milk and casein clot to form cheer cheese. It was found that the protein y-casein does not coagulate under the influence of rennet, and during cheese production it goes into thrusting, reducing the efficiency of milk use. When the mass fraction of y-casein decreases in milk proteins from 7% or more to 5.4% or less, dry matter content in milk increases by 0.12-0.32%, the mass share of fat-by 0.04-0.08%, protein-by 0.03-0.11%, including casein - by 0.06-0.24%, lactose - by 0.03-0.08%, and minerals - by 0.02-0.05%. Study milk proteins showed that mass of whey proteins, which also do not coagulate under the influence of rennet, decreases by 1.3-5.2%. There is a tendency - with decrease of γ-casein from 7.3 to 5.3%, total casein increases by 0.8-5.2%, including γ-casein by 0.7-3.6%, β-casein by 0.3-1.7%, the fraction of κ-casein by 0.2-1.9% and decrease of whey proteins by 0.8-5.2%, which increases milk and cheese handling properties.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):56-60
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Fattakhova Z.F., Shakirov S.K., Sharafutdinov G.S., Khakimov I.N.


The aim of the research is improving the biochemical properties and alfalfa haylage quality using biological preservatives. Feed from perennial grasses play an important role for cows. The feed value of alfalfa directly depends on the vegetation phase, conservation and processing method. Research of preservative production, as well as selection of the best, is relevant due to widespread use of silage and haylage for cattle feeding andits high usein the animal diet. The object of the study is the dynamics of the pH level and the accumulation of organic acids in alfalfa haylage, including alfalfa herbage of the Aislu variety. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of agro-biological research of the Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture - a separate structural division of the Federal research center «Kazan scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences» in 2018. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the use of SIL-All 4×4 and Ferbak-SIL agents led to rapid acidification of the feed reaching pH = 4.7 already on the 10th day of storage, which served as an intermediate preserving factor that limited the intensity of the development of butyrate bacteria at the first stage of haylage and, future, provided good preservation of the feed. On the 60th day of storage, a significant difference (p≤0.05)with biological agents of SIL-All 4×4 and Ferbak-SIL taking into account the sum of three acids and mass of lactic and butyric acids, respectively, was found in haylage amounting to 1.13; 1.23; 0.22 % and 0.99; 1.25; 0.22 % relative to the control sample without the introduction of a preservative.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):60-66
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Soboleva N.V., Karamayeva A.S., Karamayev S.V.


The aim of the research is improving the milk handling of Holstein breed by optimizing the structure of casein protein. Studies have shown that, depending on the individual characteristic of cows, the fraction of y-casein that does not clot under the influence of rennet varies from 7% or more to 5.4% or less. It was found that as the proportion of the y-casein share decreases, the duration of milk clot lows by 3.4-8.9 minutes (8.3-21.6%). As a result, the loss of dry matter during cheese making is reduced by 1.7-5.6%, the yield of casein clot increases by 4.3-47.8%. At the same time, the consumption of whole milk for the production of 1 kg of ripened cheese is reduced by 1.9-3.7 kg (13.4-26.1%). The best milk for cheese-making was obtained from animals of the fifth group with a proportion of γ -casein in the protein structure of 5.4% or less, among which 21.4% of cows had milk that gave a clot with a density indicator of 2.46 g/cm2 and water-retaining capacity of 56.4%. These changes in the quality of the clot contribute to an increase of mass fraction of dry matter in ripened cheese by 1.1-4.6%, fat - by 0.3-1.4%, protein - by 0.4-1.7%, organic acids - by 0.3-0.7%. Titrated acidity in the cheese samples decreased from 276.7 to 231.5°Т, and the degree of ripening, on the contrary, increased from 96.9 to 124.6°Sh. Thus, only from milk with y-casein fraction of 5.4% or less, cheeses were obtained that most correspond to the quality indicators of the «Russian» type of cheese.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(4):66-72
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