Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy

The Journal is peer review scientific periodical, has being published since 2006.
 
Founder
  • Samara State Agricultural Academy

Editor-in-Chief

  • Alexander M. Petrov, candidate of technical Sciences, Professor, Rector of Samara State Agricultural Academy.
Indexing
  • Russian Science Citation Index
  • Agricultural International system (AGRIS)
  • Google Scholar
  • WorldCat
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory

Aims and Scope

The journal is intended for Researchers, Managers, Directors, Teachers, graduate students and undergraduates of universities, contributes to the improvement of training and certification, strengthening of scientific and pedagogical staff.

The journal aims are to coverage and disseminate latest achievements of science and technology in the field of agriculture. The journal presents publications of the main research results of the representatives of the teaching staff, postgraduates and undergraduates of agricultural and other universities, scientific organizations of the Russian Federation.

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Current Issue

Vol 6, No 4 (2021)

Articles

BARLEY PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELD INDICATORS USING COMPLEX FERTILIZERS AND GROWTH STIMULANTS
Vasin V.G., Burunov A.N., Mikhalkin N.G.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is barley productivity increase applying fertilizers and growth stimulators seeded together with sunflower crops cultivated in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. The ecologization of agricultural production requires the development of alternative farming systems with less possible technogenic pollution of the environment. An important role is paid to stimulating drugs on the basis of organomineral liquid mineral fertilizers. Use of Megamix and Aminocate micronutrient mixtures reduces the deficiency of trape constituent in plants and stimulates the assimilation of introduced micronutrients. Two-factor experience in studying the effects of fertilizers and ways of Berkut barley crops included fertilizer applications use: control (without fertilizers), N15P15K15, N30P30K30 (factor A); treatment of crops with preparations: no treatment (control), Aminocate 1.0 l/ha (in the tillering phase), Profi Megamix 1.0 l/ha (in the tillering phase), Profi Megamix 1.0 l/ha (in the tillering phase) + Megamix Nitrogen 1.0 l/ha (in the flag leaf phase) (factor B). Over two years of research, it was revealed that the maximum leaf size in the boot stage studied taking into account the application of fertilizers N30P30K30 if treated with Aminocate 30% preparation is 37.55 m2/ha. The same variant demonstrated maximum photosynthetic potential amounted to 1.560 million m2/ha per day. The maximum net photosynthesis yield - 5,374 g/m2 per day was provided by barley crops when applying fertilizers N30P30K30 and two-fold treatment of crops by Megamix Profi in the stage of tillering, and Megamix Nitrogen during flag leaf. And this crop provided a maximum yield of 3.03 t/ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):3-9
pages 3-9 views
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF AGRICULTURAL RECULTIVATION DURING CHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF CHERNOZEM IN THE STEPPE ZONE OF ZAVOLGA PROVINCE
Trots N.M., Gorshkova O.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is developing ways for restoring chernozem fertility, damaged as a result of chemical degradation, for agricultural purpose. Main reason for the decrease of agricultural land is land degradation. The degree of chemical degradation depends on the composition, concentration and activity of pollutants, conditions of economic use of the territory. The problem of contamination of agricultural soils in the Volga region as a result of oil production determines specific reclamation activities. The studies were conducted during 2019-2021 years on chernozems of typical medium-humus shallow slightly washed light clay. Studies have revealed the presence of Cl-, SO4-2, HCO3- anions, and Na+, Md2+ and Ca2+cations. The quantitative presence of sodium and chlorine ions indicates chloride very high degree of salinization. The content of organic matter in the form of humus on the contaminated site is 4.7-5.1%, on background lands - 3.5%, the reaction of the soil solution medium is neutral (pH 6.3), the background soil is slightly alkaline (pH 7.1), the content of mobile forms of heavy metals (Pb, Hg) is within the MPC. According to the results of agrochemical analyses for a disturbed and polluted area of 0.0622 hectares, two ways of soil restoration were adopted: technical and biological. According to the calculations obtained, 6.22 t/ha of organic fertilizers, 0.28 t of mineral fertilizer (nitrophosk), 0.622 kg of seeds of perennial grass (wheatgrass, crested grass, sweet clover), 18.99 t/ha of phosphogypsum are required for restoration work.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):10-16
pages 10-16 views
INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIVE ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND BIOLOGIES ON SPRING BARLEY YIELD IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Olenin O.A., Zudilin S.N.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is developing ways for restoring chernozem fertility, damaged as a result of chemical degradation, for agricultural purpose. Main reason for the decrease of agricultural land is land degradation. The degree of chemical degradation depends on the composition, concentration and activity of pollutants, conditions of economic use of the territory. The problem of contamination of agricultural soils in the Volga region as a result of oil production determines specific reclamation activities. The studies were conducted during 2019-2021 years on chernozems of typical medium-humus shallow slightly washed light clay. Studies have revealed the presence of Cl-, SO4-2, HCO3- anions, and Na+, Md2+ and Ca2+cations. The quantitative presence of sodium and chlorine ions indicates chloride very high degree of salinization. The content of organic matter in the form of humus on the contaminated site is 4.7-5.1%, on background lands - 3.5%, the reaction of the soil solution medium is neutral (pH 6.3), the background soil is slightly alkaline (pH 7.1), the content of mobile forms of heavy metals (Pb, Hg) is within the MPC. According to the results of agrochemical analyses for a disturbed and polluted area of 0.0622 hectares, two ways of soil restoration were adopted: technical and biological. According to the calculations obtained, 6.22 t/ha of organic fertilizers, 0.28 t of mineral fertilizer (nitrophosk), 0.622 kg of seeds of perennial grass (wheatgrass, crested grass, sweet clover), 18.99 t/ha of phosphogypsum are required for restoration work.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):17-23
pages 17-23 views
INFLUENCE OF THE SEEDING RATE AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD OF VARIOUS VARIETIES OF OATS
Vasin V.G., Savachaev A.V., Burunov A.N.
Abstract
The aim of the study is increasing the yield of spring barley applying innovative organic fertilizers and biologies in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region. The studies were conducted in 2017-2020. The Orlan spring barley variety was the object of research. During the held trial on seeds, organic fertilizers were introduced during growing season tillage with biologies. The maximum effect was noted with the combined use of seed pelleting and a polyfunctional biologies for vegetation, the reduction of root rot infestation reached 20.7-29.2%. For factor A (innovative organic fertilizers) on average for 2017-2020 years the yield of spring barley in the control test was 1.39 t/ha without fertilizers; with the nitroammofoski use - 1.53 t/ha; Diatomite + Wood ash + organic potassium multicomponent organic fertilizer - 1.56 t/ha; Diatomite + Zoohumus + Wood ash - 1.60 t/ha; Diatomite + Phytosporin + Potassium Gumat - 1.47 t/ha; multicomponent organic mixture with the functions of fertilizer, biostimulator, fungicide and bactericide, for pre-sowing seed pelleting - 1.59 t/ha; Zeolite + Effluent; two-component organic fertilizer - 1.47 t/ha. Increase in yield of spring barley due to use of organic fertilizers was 0.08-0.21 t/ha or 5.8-15.1%. According to factor B (pest management system), the yield of barley was: for the control - 1.40 t/ha; pesticides in the form of fungicide and insecticide -1.46 t/ha; multi-component multifunctional biologies with the functions of fertilizer, fungicide and bactericide based on column effluent - 1.69 t/ha. Pesticides use and biologies increased the yield of spring barley by 0.06-0.29 t/ha or 4.3-20.7%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):24-30
pages 24-30 views
DYNAMICS OF GRAIN APHIDS IN WINTER SOFT WHEAT CROPS IN THE SAMARA REGION FOREST-STEPPE
Sharapova Y.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is increasing the productivity of winter soft wheat in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region. The article presents the results of three-year research of dynamics of grain aphids and coccinellids in the crops of three varieties of winter soft wheat (Povolzhskaya 86, Povolzhskaya Niva and Konstantinovskaya). The records were carried out by mowing using an entomological skimming net for 100 strokes in three-fold repetition along the diagonal of the field during the spring-summer growing season of winter wheat. During three years of research, the most favorable year for growth of both winter wheat and grain aphids was 2016. The maximum number of common grain aphids reached 915.3 individuals/100 strokes of the skimming net (Konstantinovskaya variety, earing phase). In 2017, grain aphids began their growth much later due to heavy spring precipitation. The minimum number of grain aphids was observed in the tillering phase embracing all research years. The Schizaphis graminum Rond was dominant aphid. Only in 2016, during the earing phase, the presence of a Sitobion avenae F. was noted on the Konstantinovskaya variety. In general, of all the studied varieties, the Konstantinovskaya winter wheat variety was the mostly populated with common grain aphids. The increase of grain aphids was largely restrained by coccinellids. This is clearly visible during years 2015 and 2016 on the Povolzhskaya 86 and Povolzhskaya Niva varieties. In 2017, due to the delayed growth of the pest and the entomophage, there was a simultaneous increase in the number of both.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):31-36
pages 31-36 views
IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SOIL TREATMENT USING TRACTION DRIVEN TILLAGE IMPLEMENT
Mashkov S.V., Petrov M.A., Shakhov V.A., Ishkin P.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is increasing energy efficiency of early spring surface treatment using traction power-driven tillage implement with working tools. In crop production, the most energy-intensive operations include tillage, which accounts for up to 40% of energy consumption of the entire technology. As for soil and climatic conditions of arid regions of Russia, the technology of tillage should ensure minimal loss of soil moisture accumulated during the autumn-winter period. It is proposed to increase energy efficiency of soil treatment using a traction-driven tillage implement with active working tools that does not create high traction resistances and does not require large hitch weight of an aggregating tractor. The analysis of energy efficiency of soil treatment using traction-driven tillage implement with working tools is given and theoretical dependences of the efficiency of an aggregating tractor are obtained. The possibility of increasing efficiency of the unit by reducing the slipping of the tractor wheels and loss during rolling which is achieved by transferring part of the power via power take-off shaft to the drive working tools, which compensate traction resistance of an implement and create a pushing force, reducing the rolling resistance. The energy evaluation test of the TDG-3 experimental model of the traction-driven implement led to a decrease in the traction resistance of the unit from 6 kN in the passive mode of operation without a drive, to 0.86 kN in the operating mode driven by the power take-off shaft. At the same time, the energy consumption for soil loosening (hourly fuel consumption) decreased by 15%, which confirms a higher energy efficiency of using a traction-driven implement in comparison with traction tools.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):37-47
pages 37-47 views
ANALYSIS OF MASSAGE DEVICE OPERATION ON THE BASIS OF PNEUMATIC ELEMENTS FOR HEIFER UDDER
Kurochkin A.A., Frolov D.I.
Abstract
The study purpose is substantiation of working parameters of air-driven elements of a massage devise for a heifer udder. The article considers the problem of improving the effectiveness of preparing heifers for lactation. The workable and process operational diagram of a modernized device for a combined massage of a heifer udder which allows regulating the intensity of the pneumatic component of a massage effect on the breast tissue of an animal, is substantiated. Based on the obtained diagram of pressure changes in the bell and the massaging element (sucker) of the device, a general analysis of the working process of massaging devices operating according to a two-chamber scheme is carried out. A technical solution is proposed that allows eliminating the shortcomings of the prototype due to a more rational diagram of pressure changes in a massaging bell and its executive mechanism - the massaging element. To a positive result of a modernized workable and process operational diagram of a massaging device can be referred the possibility of separate regulation of intensity of the pneumatic and mechanical components of a massage, which allows to get two technological modes of operation of a device in order to prepare heifers for lactation in different periods of calving. The first mode is realized when a replaceable insert with a diameter of 3.0 mm is installed onto the bottom of a massaging bell and an unbolted adjustment screw in the air distributor, and the second mode is realized when an insert with the diameter of 1.5 mm is used and the adjustment screw is twisted in as tight as possible. This modernization made it possible to simplify the regulation of air pressure (vacuum) in the bell of the massaging device and its executive mechanism - a massaging element. The developed device provides adjustable parameters of the pneumatic component of a massage for the bell and an element, respectively, in intervals of 10-17 and 19-28 kPa, which is in good agreement with the requirements for the operational process of preparing heifers for lactation.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):48-54
pages 48-54 views
DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTOR FREQUENCY ON ELECTRIC HEATER FOR FAT CLARIFYING
Kirov Y.А., Mashkov S.V., Kudryakov E.V., Syrkin V.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is increasing the efficiency of wax clarifying by substantiating the workable and operating parameters of an electric heater. An electric heater for wax clarifying-a wax melter has been developed, which has a beam and convection thermal effect on a wax substance, leading to melting it both in prepared form and on the frames. One of main elements of a wax melter is a heating element-a circuit, a concentrator and an induction coil. The time spent on wax clarifying depends on a heating time of a working chamber of a wax melter to the operating temperature, which in turn depends on the heating time of the circuit, since when the operating temperature is reached, the inductor operates in intermittent mode to maintain the set temperature. To reduce the energy consumption, it is necessary to determine the optimal parameters of the wax-melter inductor. The tested factors influencing the parameters of the technological process of wax clarifying are the frequency of the current in the inductor and time required for the heating circuit to reach the operating frequency. An electric heater has been made that modifies the operation of a wax melter, which allows conducting research within the frequency range from 20 to 500 kHz. The heating temperature is assumed to be 100°C. A graphic scheme of the dependence of time spent on heating the circuit on the frequency change is constructed. It is established that with the frequency increase, the time spent on heating the circuit decreases non-linear. The current frequency of 320 kHz is assumed to be optimal for the operation of a melter, further frequency increase is not effective.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):55-61
pages 55-61 views
IMPROVING PRODUCTIVE ABILITY OF CAWS AND HEIFERS OF KAZAKH WHITE-HEADED BREED IN THE SAMARA REGION
Khakimov I.N., Sharafutdinov G.S., Mudarisov R.M., Kulmakova N.I.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is improving milk yield of cows and heifers of The Kazakh White-headed breed via selection in according to live weight and milkness. Experience of many foreign and domestic farms for breeding of beef cattle shows that in stock breeding work it is important not only to select the best servicing bulls, evaluated for breeding, but also selection of brood cows and heifers. Only many years and highly motivated work for the breeding of brood animals can result in breeding effective beef cattle .Cows and heifers of the Kazakh White-headed animals, data of breeding and evaluation of cows and young stock were studied. To determine the effect of breeding, the 67% best cows due to live weight and 46% heifers were selected. Using the breeding differential and the heritability factors, the effect of breeding for one generation was calculated. The simultaneous selection of the 67% best cows for live weight and milk yield for nuclear stock allows increasing live weight in one generation by 2.12-2.22%, and milk yield by 1.05-0.98%. Selection to the nuclear stock of the 465 best heifers in respect to live weight of breeding age, allows increasing the live weight of animals of nuclear stock by 5.76%, and an average of the whole herd by 6.41%. This means that the average live weight of the stock in one generation will be 503 kg, and the weight of cows of the nuclear stock - 528 kg. Live weight of replacement heifers’ age 15 months will amount to 332kg and 367 respectively.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):62-68
pages 62-68 views
IMMUNE STATUS OF COLOSTRUM DEPENDING ON MILK YIELD AFTER THE FIRST CALVING
Bakaeva L.N., Karamaeva A.S., Karamaev S.V.
Abstract
The aim of the research is increasing immune status of dairy breed colostrum by optimizing the value of milk yield after the first calving. For the colostral immunity development and realization of its protective function for newborn calves, it is important that the level of immunoglobulins in the first portion of colostrum is within the physiological range. Research was carried out in the conditions of modern milk production complexes of the Samara, Orenburg regions and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The first colostrum of cows of Black-Motley, Bestuzhev, Holstein and Ayrshire breeds was studied. It was found that value of the first portion of the colostrum, after calving, and milk yield for period of 305 days of lactation have a positive (r = 0.39-0.54) correlation relationship. The maximum yield was shown by cows of the Holstein breed during the third lactation, Black-Motley and Ayrshire breeds the fourth, Bestuzhevskaya - the fifth lactation periods. The study of immunoglobulin dynamics showed that an increase of the single milk yield from 5 to 10 kg leads to a decrease of immunoglobulin content of Black-Motley cows by 35.0 g/l (47.5%), Bestuzhevskaya - by 50.9 g/l (48.1%), Holstein - by 35.2 g/l (51.2%), Ayrshire - by 45.4 g/l (47.5%) breeds. At the same time, on average for each breed, the content of IgG decreases by 2.1-2.3 times, the content of IgA - by 1.83-2.28 g/l (24.5-25.4%), IgM - by 1.06-1.36 g/l (25.4-22.7%). High immune status of the colostrum is preserved by Black-Motley cows after the first calving 5-7 kg, Bestuzhevskaya - 5-9, Holstein - 5-6, Ayrshire - 5-9 kg. This is due to the breed of cows and their characteristic level of immunoglobulins in colostrum.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):69-75
pages 69-75 views
USE OF SAREPTA-5 MUSTARD PROTEIN FOR MILK PRODUCTION
Itskovich A.Y., Varakin A.T., Ryadnov A.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is evaluation the productivity of dairy cows when the Sarepta-5 mustard protein is included in a diet. Analysis of the chemical composition of the protein Sarepta-5 showed that for nutritional value it is close to sunflower cake. The scientific and economic experiment was carried out on animals of the Holstein breed. 3 groups of cows with 10 heads each were formed. In the main period of the experiment, cows of the control group I received a basic diet with an insufficient content of digestible protein. Main diet of the II control group was balanced by the introduction of sunflower cake, the III experimental group - by the introduction of Sarepta-5 mustard protein. Compared with animals of group I, the average daily milk yield of cows of groups II and III is higher, respectively, by 1.37 kg (11.27%) and 1.39 kg (11.43%). Recalculation of the results of the average daily milk yield of cows for basic fat content of milk (3.4%) showed that the studied indicator is higher in milk of cows of group II by 1.56 kg (11.54%) and cows of group III - by 1.62 kg (11.98%) than of animals of group I. In the milk of cows of groups II and III, the protein content was higher, respectively, by 0.04 and 0.05%; SOMO - by 0.04 and 0.11% than of animals of group I (no significant difference was not found). The accumulation of allylisothiocyanates in milk of cows of group III was defined as «traces». Data of the production implementation confirmed the results of scientific and economic experience. It has been established that for production of milk when feeding lactating cows, along with sunflower cake mustard protein Sarepta-5 should be included to the diet, to expand feeding range for dairy cattle breeding.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2021;6(4):76-81
pages 76-81 views

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