Vol 7, No 2 (2022)



Vasin V.G., Trifonov D.I., Saniev R.N.


The purpose of the research is targeted at the increase of corn productivity cultivated with nutrient application and complex stimulant drugs during the growing season to reach the desired yield. Corn is the main fodder crop in the Middle Volga region and in the Russian Federation. However, its yield is still much lower than potential crop and generally does not exceed 5.0 t/ha. On the basis of the Samara State Agrarian University, researchers of the Department of Plant Growing and Agriculture have developed a program to reach the targeted corn yield with nutrient application of 11.0 t/ha using a complex of modern preparations for vegetation. In the course of research, it was revealed that crops of corn hybrids possess a photosynthetic potential of up to 3.256 million m2/ha×days (on crops of the Amarok hybrid) with Yara Vita preparations complex treatment. On average, over the years of research, the value of net photosynthesis was at the level of 5.526-6.122 g/m2×day with the maximum value on the crops of the ES Sirius hybrid when treated with Megamix preparations. At the control, net photosynthesis was 5.879 g/m2×day, when crops were treated with Megamix preparations - 5.834 g/m2×day, and Yara Vita preparations - 5.779 g/m2×day. The average yield of hybrids for the period of two years amounted to 8.81-9.77 t/ha. Hybrids of Competence and Amarok showed the highest yield - 9.35 and 9.58 t/ha when crops were treated with Megamix preparations. When crops treated with Yara Vita preparations, the same trend is observed for hybrids, but the yield increases - 9.49 and 9.77 t/ha with the implementation of program 85 and 87%, 86 and 89%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):3-10
pages 3-10 views


Bakaeva N.P., Zaprometova L.V.


The research purpose is to increase winter wheat yield, the content of grain starch and sugar via agrotechnology biologizing within the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The research was carried out during the period of 2017-2019 on the fields of the Department of Land Management, Soil Science and Agrochemistry, the laboratory of Agroecology of Samara State Agrarian University. Three methods of tillage operations were used, the effect of dry, liquid organic fertilizers of LLC «AgroPromSnab» and manure on grain yield, starch content, sugar of Svetoch variety winter wheat was studied. The plowing average yield over the years of research was 3.43 t/ha. The area without tillage practice together with organic fertilizers provided a greater effect and increased grain yield by 11.9%, the use of manure led to an increase in yield compared to the nonfertilized ground by 11.5%. The grain starch content in plowing was 69.2%, the area without tillage operations together with organic fertilizers provided the starch increase in grain by 11.9%, the use of manure led to an increase of the starch content compared to the non-fertilized culturing by 11.8%. Area without tillage operations provided greater impact on the accumulation of sugar and exceeded results on grounds with other ways of plant cultivation by 2.2%, manure contributed more to an increase of sugar content compared to fertilizers. The maximum value of the ratio of starch to protein content in winter wheat grain (an indicator of nutritional efficiency) was 4.85 taking into regard areas without autumn tillage practice, area plowing with fertilizers provided an increase in this indicator by 3.6%, dry organic fertilizer maximized this indicator by 4%. Agrotechnology biologization of winter wheat cultivation, including areas without autumn tillage practice and use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, dry and liquid organic fertilizers, contributed to an increase of grain yield and starch content and had a positive indicator of nutritional efficiency.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):11-18
pages 11-18 views


Fomin V.N., Kozin A.M., Mardiev I.I., Husnutdinov R.G.


The research purpose is to increase the yield and winter wheat grain class within the conditions of the Middle Volga forest-steppe region. The studies were conducted between the periods of 2018-2020. The soil of the experimental research is leached middle loamy black one. It was established that the main factor influencing the increase of yield, gluten content, water regime and consumption coefficient is macro-, micro-fertilizers and growth stimulants. The effect of water softener is less significant. The highest winter wheat yield (5.264 t/ha) was obtained using a tank mixture (Stimax + Nutrient + Carbamide) with simultaneous pecacid use (19.4% higher than compared to the control). The increase due to the preparations for this variant was 856 kg/ha, and an air conditioner use amounted to - 125 kg/ha. The mixture Nutrient + Carbamide ranks second where 5.127 t/ha was obtained using pecacid from 1 ha; tank mixture Stimax + Nutrient was placed third where 4,491 t/ha was collected from 1 ha, which is higher than from the control area, respectively, by 16.3 and 12.1%. The use of each drug separately (2, 3, 4 variants) and their use in double mixtures reduced the yield compared to the tank mixture consisting of three components (Stimax + Nutrient + Carbamide). The use of a water conditioner (pecacid) for foliar top dressing contributed to an increase in yield for all experiments compared with variants without pecacid use. The maximum yield of the Scepter winter wheat (5.264 t/ha) and the highest gluten content (26.7%) in the experiment for an average of four years were obtained on the eighth variant (Stimax + Nutrivant + Carbamid). The cost of grain due to this variant amounted to 7.335 thousand rubles/ton, profitability - 108.2%. The use of pure drugs and in double tank mixtures is less effective.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):19-29
pages 19-29 views


Bakaeva N.P., Zaprometova L.V.


The research purpose is to increase the productiveness of winter wheat with high-protein grain by applying agricultural technologies of cultivation and organic fertilizers. Over the years of research under the conditions of the Middle Volga forest-steppe region during the Svetoch variety of winter wheat cultivation, it was revealed that organic fertilizers contributed to an increase of grain yield by 10.2-11.5%. Manure addition maximized the yield (by an average of 0.35 t/ha). Plowing as one-over tillage led to an increase of wheat yield, compared with surface tillage by 1.8% (0.6 c/ha), and without cultural practice - by 2.3% (0.8 c/ha). The maximum thousand grain weight and vitreousness were observed due to plowing and dicomposed manure. Organic fertilizers contributed to an average increase of protein content by 9.0% compared to grain class cultivated without fertilizers. The highest protein content was due to plowing and using 15.1% of manure as fertilizer. Total gluten proteins due to the plowing averaged 10.3%, which is 3% higher as compare with surface and zero tillage. The greatest prolamins and glutelins were due to the plowing and manure. Plowing and manure use were the most effective for cultivation in regard to grain content per hectare compared with all other tillage variants.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):30-37
pages 30-37 views


Karamaev S.V., Karamaeva A.S., Valitov H.Z.


The research purpose is to improve meat type of Kalmyk cattle by crossing with Mandolong servicing bulls. The results of studies of the crossing of Kalmyk cows with the Mandolong servicing bulls are presented. The purpose of crossing is to increase and improve earliness and meat qualities of Kalmyk cattle. Kalmyk and Mandolong clean-bred and mongrel bulls of the first and second generations born due to crossing these two breeds were studied. It was found that Mandolong calf-bulls showed the highest intensity of growth at all age periods. They left behind their Kalmyk herdmates by 191.4 kg (41.2%) in live weight at the age of 18 months, first filial generation (F1) - by 62.1 kg (10.5%), second filial one (F2) - by 87.8 kg (15.5%). The control slaughter showed that the Mandolong bulls had more carcass yield compared with the Kalmyk breed, by 1.2%, F1 and F2 crossbreeds, respectively, by 0.5 and 0.8%, and the slaughter yield 1.0; 0.7; 0.9. Crossing with the Mandolong breed significantly improves the Kalmyk meat-type. At the age of 18 months, the carcass mass of F1 crossbreed increases by 29.6%, F2 - by 23.6%, hip silverside, respectively, by 1.64 and 1.67%, the fleshing index - by 3.1 and 2.2%. Thus, if it is planned to use commercial crossing to increase beef production, it is advantageous to brood first-filial generation crossing Kalmyk cattle with Mandolong bulls.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):38-45
pages 38-45 views


Baymishev H.B., Baymishev M.H., Eremin S.P., Baymisheva S.A.


The research aim is to increase the morphofunctional status of newborn caves. Holstein cows of high productivity and their were chosen for research work. To conduct research from among pregnant cows after drying off, 2 groups of 15 heads each (control, experimental) were formed according to the principle of pairs of analogues. The animals of the experimental group were injected with Immunopharm intramuscularly three times with an interval of 7 days at a dose of 6.0 ml 10 days after drying off. Blood of cows from the studied groups was tested before and after administration of the drug to determine hematological and biochemical parameters. Сalves born by cows from studied groups were tested for morphofunctional status (viability) within the first hour after birth. Based on the conducted studies, it was found that the use of Immunopharm at a dose of 6.0 ml three times intramuscularly with an interval of 7 days during 10 days after the drying off period provides an increase of the amount of hemoglobin in the blood by 7.24 g/l, leukocytes - by 1.62×109/l total protein - by 0.83 g/ l, platelets - by 195.30×109/l, calcium - by 0.74 mmol/l, glucose - by 0.85 mmol/l, albumins - by 4.19%, α-globulins - by 3.33%. A decrease in the content of β-globulins - by 4.05%, ALaT and ASaT enzymes - by 14.93 and 14.47% compared with the blood indicators of animals from the control group, provides an increase in the morphofunctional status of calves born by cows according to the following indicators: the condition of skin, a reduction of the duration of the standing posture reflex by 3.85 minutes, the sucking reflex by 4.02 minutes, an increase of indicators, featuring maturation of skeletal system, hematological parameters and liveweight, which indicates the effectiveness of Immunopharm drug for the correction of metabolism of highly productive cows during the drying off period.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):46-53
pages 46-53 views


Kurdekо A.P., Khlebus N.K., Bоlshakоva E.I.


The research purpose is to substantiate the implementation of preventive, including pharmacological measures against hepatosis (hepatopathy) of sows to increase their performance rate. Within the conditions of a pig breeding complex, the study of indicators characterizing the offspring of sows after farrowing was carried out. The group of animals was formed containing pregnant sows (90 days of pregnancy) with a different number of farrowings (from one to four or more).The indicators of a piglet growth during the milking period of a sow after lactation were studied (the group was formed on the third day after a piglet weaning). The number of farrowings also ranged from one to four and more. During the formation of animal groups, conditionally healthy sows and those infected with hepatosis were devided. The diagnosis of hepatosis (hepatodystrophy) or its absence was confirmed by the results of biochemical blood tests. After culling and slaughter, data from pathomorphological and pathohistological studies were used to confirm the diagnosis. It has been established that the number of physiologically immature and stillborn piglets increases born by sows diagnosed with hepatosis, and their live weight of offspring decreases. With the development of hepatosis of sows during the milking period, a decrease of piglet livability for weaning, their live weight and average daily increment was established. A comparative assessment was carried out in relation to the indicators of relative healthy sows. Among sows with hepatitis, a greater number of postpartum complications and cases of culling after weaning were found. During post-slaughter autopsy of sows with a hepatosis confirmed biochemically of liver, dystrophic changes (granular, fatty, vacuole change) were detected. A conclusion was made about the negative impact of sow hepatosis on their reproduction and a piglet growth during the milking period.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):54-60
pages 54-60 views


Khlebus N.K.


The research purpose is to substantiate the pharmaco-prevention of a sow hepatosis using a complex carnitine- and tocopherol-containing drug and studying its effect on metabolic process. In commercial complexes sows are often tested for hepatosis characterized by dystrophic changes in the liver.. Against the background of hepatosis, sows have various metabolic disorders. To prevent the development of metabolic disorders, a complex veterinary drug containing carnitine, sodium citrate, zinc chelate and tocopherol was used. The drug was administered orally to pregnant sows starting from the 60th day of pregnancy to farrowing, to milking sows - from the 3rd lactation day before the weaning of piglets. Pregnant and suckling sows from the experimental groups showed normalization of the functional liver activity and metabolic process. The blood of sows tested showed an increase in the concentrations of albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, calcium-phosphorus and albumin-protein ratios in comparison with the indicators of animals of control groups. The creatinine concentration in the blood of sows from the experimental groups was lowered and had significant differences (p<0.05) compared with the indicators of sows from the control group. The concentration of urea in the blood of sows from the experimental groups differed from the blood parameters of sows from the control groups (p<0.05). When using the drug during pregnancy, the concentration of urea in the blood of sows from the experimental group decreased, during the milking period increased. The revealed changes in the metabolic status of sows were due to the restoration of synthetic liver function of animals from the experimental groups. The drug «Carnivit» tocopherol- and carnitine-containing the drug has a positive effect on the metabolic status of pregnant and milking sows by restoring synthetic liver function and blood concentrations of albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, normalization of the calcium-phosphorus and albumin-protein ratio, as well as eliminating intoxication and reducing urea and creatinine concentrations in blood of animals from the experimental group.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):61-66
pages 61-66 views


Slesarenko N.A., Zagorets P.S., Shirokova E.O.


The research purpose is to establish normative breed morphological indicators of the covering of long and short-haired domestic cats. The research was carried out at the Department of Animal Anatomy and Histology named after Professor A. F. Klimov, the Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MVA named after K. I. Scriabin. Common patterns of formation and morphometric parameters of the covering of long and short-haired feline breeds are presented. Mix of methods was used, including anatomical dissection, light microscopy of histological sections, micromorphometry, scanning electron microscopy and statistical analysis of obtained digital data. The research involved 49 individuals of the feline family of reproductive age (2-5 years), long (n=24) and short-haired (n=25). It has been established that animals of long-haired breeds are ahead of animals of short breeds for the depth of hair follicles, which indicates an unequal degree of maturity of skin due to the influence of morphotype of heterogenic hair. Common patterns of formation of protective hair were revealed - partition into cuticle, cortical and medullar matter. Thickness of the cuticle and medullar matter of animals of long-haired breeds exceeds these indicators of short-haired animals. As for the thickness of the cortical substance the reverse pattern has been revealed. An increase of hair depth of follicles of long-haired compared with short-haired animals is accompanied by a decrease in the thickness of cortical portion, thickening of medullar and scaly layers of protective hairs. Normative morphological indicators of hair cover of the studied cats have been established, which should be taken into account for the diagnosis of skin damage, as well as for the improvement of methods of feline breeding and issues of judicial and veterinary examination.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(2):67-73
pages 67-73 views

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