Vol 7, No 3 (2022)



Fomin V.N., Kozin A.M., Mardiev I.I., Husnutdinov R.G.


The purpose of the research is to increase the yield of winter wheat using growth stimulants, microbiological fertilizers, biofungicide in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga region. The soil of the experimental site is leached chernozem, medium loamy. The main factor affecting productivity, yield, gluten content, profitability level are macro- and micro-fertilizers, growth stimulants. The effect of Pekacid is less significant. The use of growth stimulants, microbiological fertilizers and biofungicide in winter wheat crops increased the photosynthetic activity of crops, yield and grain quality. The highest yield (5.14 t/ha) and an increase (750 kg/ha) were obtained using a tank mixture (Biodux + Organit P + Organit N + Orgamica S + Stimax). A slightly lower yield (5.03 t/ha) was obtained using a four-component tank mixture (Biodux + Organit P + Organit N + Orgamica S). In third place is the variant (Biodux + Organit P + Organit N + Pekacid), where 4.84 t/ha was collected from 1 ha. In variants of tank mixtures, with the use of Pekacid, the percentage of gluten increases compared to the control. The use of Pekacid preparation for foliar top dressing contributed to an increase in yield in all variants of the experiment compared with variants without the use of the preparation. The use of tank mixtures together with the Pekacid preparation in winter wheat crops is more effective compared to the use of preparations separately (variants 2 and 3) and contributes to an increase in net income and profitability.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):3-13
pages 3-13 views


Syrkin V.A., Mashkov S.V., Vasilev S.I., Ishkin P.A.


The purpose of the work is to improve the quality of seed treatment with a magnetic field. Magnetic stimulation of seeds is one of the electrophysical methods that increases the germination and intensity of plant growth. This method is environmentally friendly and does not require large energy costs. There are various devices for magnetic stimulation of plants. To increase productivity flow-type installations are created. One of the main tasks is the uniform stimulation of seeds in compliance with the required processing time. An installation of magnetic seed stimulation with vibration dosing has been developed, which ensures the equal stimulation of seeds of different crops in the flow with the possibility of regulating the number of seeds being processed. A vibrating dispenser is an element that provides dosing, while its main parts are an electromagnet and vibrating plates. By changing the frequency of the coil supply current, the seed supply is changed by the dispenser. Studies on the influence of the magnetic field frequency on the process of dosing wheat and amaranth seeds have been conducted. The minimum supply of spring wheat and amaranth seeds, respectively, was 3.1 and 1.7 kg/h at a frequency of 10 Hz. The maximum feed was observed at a frequency of 110 Hz - 70.1 and 22.7 kg/h, respectively. The stimulation time when the frequency changes from 10 to 110 Hz for spring wheat varies in the range from 90 to 4 s, amaranth - from 89 to 7 s. Considering the required seed stimulation time, the necessary feed can be set by changing the frequency. At the same time, the supply of the dispenser in the operating ranges has a linear dependence on the frequency of the electric current supplied to the electromagnet.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):14-20
pages 14-20 views


Zaitsev V.Y., Fudin K.P., Konovalov V.V., Dontsova M.V., Petrova S.S.


The purpose of the research is to simulate the motion of particles moving along the surface of the inner blades of a horizontal rotating rotor. For the effective operation of the machines used in their design, it is necessary to find rational or optimal design, kinematic and technological parameters. As a result of the experimental substantiation of the working capacity zone, it is possible to find the required parameter values by statistical methods. Due to the development of computer technology and the development of programs for modeling by the finite element method, the use of this modeling method is becoming widespread. On the one hand, there is the advantage of this method, on the other hand, obtaining a reliable result requires the specialization of the computer program for the process conditions and research tasks under consideration, the operator's experience in conducting such studies, setting up the source data and marking the computational grid. The research methodology included force analysis of the forces acting on the particle during its movement along the blade of a rotating rotor and subsequent mathematical modeling of the particle motion in the mathematical package MatchCAD. Based on the expressions obtained, particle motion graphs were constructed based on the simulation results. The force analysis of the interaction of a particle with the blades of a rotating horizontal rotor made it possible to obtain expressions describing the movement of a particle along a moving blade to the center of the rotor. Based on the identified expressions, numerical modeling allowed to establish graphs of the influence of the rotor rotation frequency and friction coefficients on the angle of lifting of particles by the blades, the laws of particle motion along the rotor blade, the parameters of particle fall from the blade. The use of the obtained mathematical models makes it easier to solve specific practical problems.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):21-32
pages 21-32 views


Molostova A.Y., Karamaev S.V., Karamaeva A.S.


The purpose of the research is to improve the fattening and meat qualities of Kalmyk cattle by the method of reproductive crossing with the Mandolong breed. Currently, the market's requirements for beef quality, based on the preferences of the country's population, have changed significantly. Fatty beef has become less in demand. When changing the requirements for the productive and biological qualities of specialized meat breeds, the attention of breeders is attracted by large, tall breeds of Franco-Italian breeding, which, with intensive raising and fattening technology, are characterized by increased live weight gain at an early age and fat accumulation at a later age. The object of the research is animals of the Kalmyk and Mandolong breeds, as well as cross-bred calves of the first generation obtained by reciprocal crossing. As a result of the fact that the live weight of Kalmyk cows is 468 kg, and Mandolong cows - 645 kg, the relative live weight of calves from Kalmyk cows was higher by 1.54%, heifers - by 1.14%, which caused an increase in the number of calving with complications to 35.7 and 12.5% respectively. At the first suckling, calves from Mandolong cows consumed colostrum 6.5-4.5% more than those from Kalmyk cows. In the colostrum of the first milk yield of Kalmyk cows, there was more dry matter by 5.8-6.3%, MJ - by 1.5%, MDB - by 3.9-4.7%. In the colostrum of Kalmyk cows, IgG is 29.1-29.9% more, IgA is 29.6-28.4%, IgM is 31.5-35.8% more. It was found that immunoglobulins from the colostrum of Kalmyk cows entered the blood of crossbred calves faster and 6 hours after the first drinking their content was higher, compared to the Mandolong breed, by 8.9-10.2%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):33-38
pages 33-38 views


Petukhova E.I., Baymishev M.H., Sharimova N.M.


The aim of the research is to substantiate immunological, enzymatic blood parameters and indicators of natural resistance of the cows during the peak of lactation in relation to the dose of the Optigen feed additive. The research was carried out on Holstein cows in the conditions of JSC «Niva» of the Stavropol district of the Samara region. Four groups of cows with ten heads each (control, experimental-1, experimental-2, experimental-3) were formed among newly calved cows according to the principle of pairs of analogues. During the experiment, the control group of animals was kept on a basic diet, and the animals of the experimental groups in addition to the diet received the feed additive Optigen in a dose: experimental-1 - 90 g, experimental-2 - 100 g and experimental-3 - 120 g. The experimental study was carried out on cows in the peak period of lactation during the first 90 days after calving. To determine the physiological state, blood was taken from 5 cows before the experiment, as well as from five animals from each group on the 5th, 60th and 90th days after calving. Immunological and enzymatic blood parameters and gradients of natural resistance of the organism were studied in cows of the study group. The results of a study on the use of the feed additive Optigen in the diet of feeding highly productive cows are presented. Feeding the feed additive Optigen at a dose of 100 g during the peak of lactation improves blood parameters in terms of the content of immunoglobulins A, M, G, reduces the activity of AlT, AsT by 11-12%, as well as bactericidal, phagocytic, lysozyme activity.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):39-45
pages 39-45 views


Piatrouski S.V., Bоlshakоva E.I., Matesha H.A.


The purpose of the research is to substantiate the implementation of pharmacoprophylactic measures in relation to drug hepatosis in monogastric animals to increase their productivity. In the conditions of the clinic of the Department of Internal Non-infectious Animal Diseases, a simulation of drug hepatosis in white mice was carried out. Three groups of animals were formed (5 individuals each). The mice of the control group received the usual feeding diet, the mice of the experimental groups received the antibacterial drug amoxicillin and a drug with antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, paracetamol. The drugs were given in maximum therapeutic doses. Additionally, the second experimental group was given the drug «Carnivet» containing carnitine hydrochloride, magnesium sulfate and sorbitol. The experiment lasted 25 days. The clinical condition of laboratory animals and changes in their live weight were evaluated. The diagnosis of hepatosis (or its absence) was confirmed by the results of macro- and microscopic studies of the liver after slaughter of white mice. The clinical condition of the mice of the first experimental group was characterized by depression and intermittent aggression. The average daily gains in live weight were the highest in the mice of the second experimental group and exceeded this indicator in relation to the control group by 28.6%. In the mice of the first experimental group, receiving amoxicillin and paracetamol, by the end of the experiment, live weight plumb lines were established. Post-slaughter autopsy of mice of the first experimental group revealed typical dystrophic changes in the liver tissue (granular and vacuole dystrophy, karyolysis) and a weakly pronounced inflammatory reaction. No such changes were found in the liver of the control group mice. Weakly expressed focal granular and vacuole dystrophy were detected in the liver of animals of the second experimental group. In addition, pronounced «restorative» processes characterized by perivasculitis and single small granulomas as well as an increase in the proportion of binucleated hepatocytes have been established. A conclusion was made about the preventive efficacy of the drug «Carnivet» in relation to toxic hepatosis.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):46-53
pages 46-53 views


Kopylova S.V., Khabirov A.F., Gadiev R.R., Farrakhov A.R.


The purpose of the research is to increase productivity of geese by crossing the Lindow geese and the Chinese Wanxi breed. The article presents a comparative analysis of measurements obtained by measuring the body articles of the studied breeds and their hybrids. Two breeds of heavy and medium type were selected to obtain new hybrids. The Lind geese breed was used as the initial maternal form, the Chinese Wanxi goose breed was used as the paternal form. The measurements taken and the methods of their measurement are described. The research was carried out on the territory of the Bashkir Bird LLC enterprise in the Blagovarsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan. To study the effect of crossing on the exterior features of the obtained hybrids measurements were taken from a bird at the age of 9 weeks. The obtained values of measurements of hybrids were compared with each other and with measurements of the original breeds. The values of the main measurements characterizing the meat qualities and the strength of the constitution (trunk girth, shin length, keel length) are: ♂68,5 ♀66,5; ♂18,1 ♀15,8; ♂30,3 ♀26,4 centimeters' respectively. To get the average value for all breed groups by the method of variation statistics, the arithmetic mean, the error of the arithmetic mean and the accuracy criterion were calculated using the Microsoft Excel program. According to the measurements constitution indexes were calculated for a more accurate characteristic of the constitution. The conducted studies have shown that the obtained hybrids of ♀Lindovskay × ♂Wanxi surpass the parent forms in the taken measurements, as evidenced by the best meat qualities. The effect of heterosis is observed. This explains the possibility of raising the obtained hybrids for meat.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2022;7(3):54-59
pages 54-59 views

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